Department of Veterinary Medicine Research Works
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- ItemCXCR6+CD4+ T cells promote mortality during Trypanosoma brucei infection(PLOS, 2021-10-06) Liu, Gongguan; Abas, Osama; Strickland, Ashley B.; Chen, Yanli; Shi, MeiqingLiver macrophages internalize circulating bloodborne parasites. It remains poorly understood how this process affects the fate of the macrophages and T cell responses in the liver. Here, we report that infection by Trypanosoma brucei induced depletion of macrophages in the liver, leading to the repopulation of CXCL16-secreting intrahepatic macrophages, associated with substantial accumulation of CXCR6+CD4+ T cells in the liver. Interestingly, disruption of CXCR6 signaling did not affect control of the parasitemia, but significantly enhanced the survival of infected mice, associated with reduced inflammation and liver injury. Infected CXCR6 deficient mice displayed a reduced accumulation of CD4+ T cells in the liver; adoptive transfer experiments suggested that the reduction of CD4+ T cells in the liver was attributed to a cell intrinsic property of CXCR6 deficient CD4+ T cells. Importantly, infected CXCR6 deficient mice receiving wild-type CD4+ T cells survived significantly shorter than those receiving CXCR6 deficient CD4+ T cells, demonstrating that CXCR6+CD4+ T cells promote the mortality. We conclude that infection of T. brucei leads to depletion and repopulation of liver macrophages, associated with a substantial influx of CXCR6+CD4+ T cells that mediates mortality.
- ItemIL-27 Negatively Regulates Tip-DC Development during Infection(American Society for Microbiology, 2021-02-16) Liu, Gongguan; Abas, Osama; Fu, Yong; Chen, Yanli; Strickland, Ashley B.; Sun, Donglei; Shi, MeiqingTumor necrosis factor (TNF)/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-producing dendritic cells (Tip-DCs) have profound impacts on host immune responses during infections. The mechanisms regulating Tip-DC development remain largely unknown. Here, using a mouse model of infection with African trypanosomes, we show that a deficiency in interleukin-27 receptor (IL-27R) signaling results in escalated intrahepatic accumulation of Ly6C-positive (Ly6C1) monocytes and their differentiation into Tip-DCs. Blocking Tip-DC development significantly ameliorates liver injury and increases the survival of infected IL-27R2/2 mice. Mechanistically, Ly6C1 monocyte differentiation into pathogenic Tip-DCs in infected IL-27R2/2 mice is driven by a CD41 T cell-interferon gamma (IFN-g) axis via cell-intrinsic IFN-g signaling. In parallel, hyperactive IFN-g signaling induces cell death of Ly6C-negative (Ly6C2) monocytes in a cell-intrinsic manner, which in turn aggravates the development of pathogenic Tip-DCs due to the loss of the negative regulation of Ly6C2 monocytes on Ly6C1 monocyte differentiation into Tip-DCs. Thus, IL-27 inhibits the dual-track exacerbation of Tip-DC development induced by a CD41 T cell–IFN-g axis. We conclude that IL-27 negatively regulates Tip-DC development by preventing the cell-intrinsic effects of IFN-g and that the regulation involves CD41 T cells and Ly6C2 monocytes. Targeting IL-27 signaling may manipulate Tip-DC development for therapeutic intervention.
- ItemMolecular characterization and complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 4 prototype strain duck/Hong Kong/D3/75(Springer Nature, 2008-10-20) Nayak, Baibaswata; Kumar, Sachin; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba KAvian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world. All APMVs, except avian metapneumovirus, are classified in the genus Avulavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. At present, the APMVs of genus Avulavirus are divided into nine serological types (APMV 1–9). Newcastle disease virus represents APMV-1 and is the most characterized among all APMV types. Very little is known about the molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of APMV 2–9. As a first step towards understanding the molecular genetics and pathogenicity of APMV-4, we have sequenced the complete genome of APMV-4 strain duck/Hong Kong/D3/75 and determined its pathogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs. The genome of APMV-4 is 15,054 nucleotides (nt) in length, which is consistent with the "rule of six". The genome contains six non-overlapping genes in the order 3'-N-P/V-M-F-HN-L-5'. The genes are flanked on either side by highly conserved transcription start and stop signals and have intergenic sequences varying in length from 9 to 42 nt. The genome contains a 55 nt leader region at 3' end. The 5' trailer region is 17 nt, which is the shortest in the family Paramyxoviridae. Analysis of mRNAs transcribed from the P gene showed that 35% of the transcripts were edited by insertion of one non-templated G residue at an editing site leading to production of V mRNAs. No message was detected that contained insertion of two non-templated G residues, indicating that the W mRNAs are inefficiently produced in APMV-4 infected cells. The cleavage site of the F protein (DIPQR↓F) does not conform to the preferred cleavage site of the ubiquitous intracellular protease furin. However, exogenous proteases were not required for the growth of APMV-4 in cell culture, indicating that the cleavage does not depend on a furin site. Phylogenic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of viruses of all five genera of the family Paramyxoviridae showed that APMV-4 is more closely related to the APMVs than to other paramyxoviruses, reinforcing the classification of all APMVs in the genus Avulavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae.
- ItemDetection of NP, N3 and N7 antibodies to avian influenza virus by indirect ELISA using yeast-expressed antigens(Springer Nature, 2009-10-07) Upadhyay, Chitra; Ammayappan, Arun; Vakharia, Vikram NAvian influenza viruses, belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, possess distinct combinations of hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N) surface glycoproteins. Typing of both H and N antigens is essential for the epidemiological and surveillance studies. Therefore, it is important to find a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for their assay, and ELISA can be useful for this purpose, by using recombinant proteins. The nucleoprotein (NP) and truncated neuraminidase subtype 3 and 7 of avian influenza virus (AIV) were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody detection. The developed assays were evaluated with a panel of 64 chicken serum samples. The performance of NP-ELISA was compared with the commercially available ProFlok® AIV ELISA kit. The results showed comparable agreement and sensitivity between the two tests, indicating that NP-ELISA assay can be used for screening the influenza type A antibody in AIV infected birds. The N3 and N7- ELISAs also reacted specifically to their type specific sera and did not exhibit any cross-reaction with heterologous neuraminidase subtype specific sera. The study demonstrates the expression of the NP, N3, and N7 proteins of AIV in yeast (S. cerevisiae) and their application in developing an indirect ELISA for detecting NP, N3 and N7 antibodies from AIV-infected chicken sera. The described indirect ELISAs are rapid, sensitive, specific and can be used as promising tests during serological surveillance.
- ItemPartial direct contact transmission in ferrets of a mallard H7N3 influenza virus with typical avian-like receptor specificity(Springer Nature, 2009-08-14) Song, Haichen; Wan, Hongquan; Araya, Yonas; Perez, Daniel RAvian influenza viruses of the H7 subtype have caused multiple outbreaks in domestic poultry and represent a significant threat to public health due to their propensity to occasionally transmit directly from birds to humans. In order to better understand the cross species transmission potential of H7 viruses in nature, we performed biological and molecular characterizations of an H7N3 virus isolated from mallards in Canada in 2001. Sequence analysis that the HA gene of the mallard H7N3 virus shares 97% identity with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N3 virus isolated from a human case in British Columbia, Canada in 2004. The mallard H7N3 virus was able to replicate in quail and chickens, and transmitted efficiently in quail but not in chickens. Interestingly, although this virus showed preferential binding to analogs of avian-like receptors with sialic acid (SA) linked to galactose in an α2–3 linkage (SAα2–3Gal), it replicated to high titers in cultures of primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cells, comparable to an avian H9N2 influenza virus with human-like α2–6 linkage receptors (SAα2–6Gal). In addition, the virus replicated in mice and ferrets without prior adaptation and was able to transmit partially among ferrets. Our findings highlight the importance and need for systematic in vitro and in vivo analysis of avian influenza viruses isolated from the natural reservoir in order to define their zoonotic potential.