Health Policy & Management Research Works
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- ItemCOVID-19 public health measures and patient and public involvement in health and social care research: An umbrella review(International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2023-03-10) Fouladi, Negin; Tchangalova, Nedelina; Ajayi, Damilola; Millwee, Elizabeth; Lovett, Corinne; Del Sordi, Alana; Liggett, Samantha; De Silva, Malki; Bonilla, Laura; Nkwonta, Angel; Ramnarine, Leah; Munoz, Allyssa; Frazer, Kate; Kroll, ThilloAn umbrella review of previously published systematic reviews was conducted to determine the nature and extent of the patient and public involvement (PPI) in COVID-19 health and social care research and identify how PPI has been used to develop public health measures (PHM). In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on PPI in research as it offers alternative perspectives and insight into the needs of healthcare users to improve the quality and relevance of research. In January 2022, nine databases were searched from 2020–2022, and records were filtered to identify peer-reviewed articles published in English. From a total of 1437 unique records, 54 full-text articles were initially evaluated, and six articles met the inclusion criteria. The included studies suggest that PHM should be attuned to communities within a sociocultural context. Based on the evidence included, it is evident that PPI in COVID-19-related research is varied. The existing evidence includes written feedback, conversations with stakeholders, and working groups/task forces. An inconsistent evidence base exists in the application and use of PPI in PHM. Successful mitigation efforts must be community specific while making PPI an integral component of shared decision-making.
- ItemDo physicians with academic affiliation have lower burnout and higher career-related satisfaction?(Springer Nature, 2022-04-26) Zhuang, Chu; Hu, Xiaochu; Dill, Michael J.Physicians report increasing burnout and declining career-related satisfaction, negatively impacting physician well-being and patient care quality. For physicians with academic affiliations, these issues can directly affect future generations of physicians. Previous research on burnout and satisfaction has focused on factors like work hours, gender, race, specialty, and work setting. We seek to contribute to the literature by examining these associations while controlling for demographic, family, and work-related characteristics. Furthermore, we aim to determine any differential effects of faculty rank. We analyzed data on practicing physicians in the U.S. from the Association of American Medical College’s (AAMC) 2019 National Sample Survey of Physicians (NSSP,) which includes variables adapted from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We used ordinal logistic regressions to explore associations between academic affiliation and burnout. We conducted a factor analysis to consolidate satisfaction measures, then examined their relationship with academic affiliation using multivariate linear regressions. All regression analyses controlled for physicians’ individual, family, and work characteristics. Among respondents (n = 6,000), 40% were affiliated with academic institutions. Physicians with academic affiliations had lower odds than their non-affiliated peers for feeling emotional exhaustion every day (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79–0.96; P < .001) and reported greater career-related satisfaction (0.10–0.14, SE, 0.03, 0.02; P < .001). The odds of feeling burnt out every day were higher for associate professors, (OR 1.57; 95% CI: 1.22–2.04; P < .001) assistant professors, (OR 1.64; 95% CI: 1.28–2.11; P < .001), and instructors (OR 1.72; 95% CI, 1.29–2.29; P < .001), relative to full professors. Our findings contribute to the literature on burnout and career satisfaction by exploring their association with academic affiliation and examining how they vary among different faculty ranks. An academic affiliation may be an essential factor in keeping physicians’ burnout levels lower and career satisfaction higher. It also suggests that policies addressing physician well-being are not “one size fits all” and should consider factors such as academic affiliation, faculty rank and career stage, gender identity, the diversity of available professional opportunities, and institutional and social supports. For instance, department chairs and administrators in medical institutions could protect physicians’ time for academic activities like teaching to help keep burnout lower and career satisfaction higher.
- ItemRelationship of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic status on mortality among older adults: Evidence from cross-level interaction analyses(PLOS, 2022-05-19) Kim, TaehyunThe influence of community context and individual socioeconomic status on health is widely recognized. However, the dynamics of how the relationship of neighborhood context on health varies by individual socioeconomic status is less well understood. To examine the relationship between neighborhood context and mortality among older adults and examine how the influence of neighborhood context on mortality differs by individual socioeconomic status, using two measures of income-level and homeownership. A retrospective study of 362,609 Medicare Advantage respondents to the 2014–2015 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey aged 65 and older. Neighborhood context was defined using the deciles of the Area Deprivation Index. Logistic regression was used to analyze mortality with interaction terms between income/homeownership and neighborhood deciles to examine cross-level relationships, controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, number of chronic conditions, obese/underweight, difficulties in activities of daily living, smoking status, and survey year. Predicted mortality rates by group were calculated from the logistic model results. Low-income individuals (8.9%) and nonhomeowners (9.1%) had higher mortality rates com- pared to higher-income individuals (5.3%) and homeowners (5.3%), respectively, and the differences were significant across all neighborhoods even after adjustment. With regression adjustment, older adults residing in less disadvantaged neighborhoods showed lower predicted 2-year mortality among high-income (4.86% in the least disadvantaged neighborhood; 6.06% in the most disadvantaged neighborhood; difference p-value<0.001) or homeowning individuals (4.73% in the least disadvantaged neighborhood; 6.25% in the most disadvantaged neighborhood; difference p-value<0.001). However, this study did not observe a significant difference in predicted mortality rates among low-income individuals by neighborhood (8.7% in the least disadvantaged neighborhood; 8.61% in the most disadvantaged neighborhood; difference p-value = 0.825). Low-income or non-homeowning older adults had a higher risk of mortality regardless of neighborhood socioeconomic status. While living in a less disadvantaged neighborhood provided a protective association for higher-income or homeowning older adults, low- income older adults did not experience an observable benefit.
- ItemThe relationship between educational attainment and hospitalizations among middle-aged and older adults in the United States(Elsevier, 2021-09-14) Yue, Dahai; Ponce, Ninez A.; Needleman, Jack; Ettner, Susan L.There has been little research on the relationship between education and healthcare utilization, especially for racial/ethnic minorities. This study aimed to examine the association between education and hospitalizations, investigate the mechanisms, and disaggregate the relationship by gender, race/ethnicity, and age groups. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using data from the 1992–2016 US Health and Retirement Study. The analytic sample consists of 35,451 respondents with 215,724 person-year observations. We employed a linear probability model with standard errors clustered at the respondent level and accounted for attrition bias using an inverse probability weighting approach. On average, compared to having an education less than high school, having a college degree or above was significantly associated with an 8.37 pp (95% CI, −9.79 pp to −7.95 pp) lower probability of being hospitalized, and having education of high school or some college was related to 3.35 pp (95% CI, −4.57 pp to −2.14 pp) lower probability. The association slightly attenuated after controlling for income but dramatically reduced once holding health conditions constant. Specifically, given the same health status and childhood environment conditions, compared to those with less than high school degree, college graduates saw a 1.79 pp (95% CI, −3.16 pp to −0.42 pp) lower chance of being hospitalized, but the association for high school graduates became indistinguishable from zero. Additionally, the association was larger for females, whites, and those younger than 78. The association was statistically significantly smaller for black college graduates than their white counterparts, even when health status is held constant. Educational attainment is a strong predictor of hospitalizations for middle-aged and older US adults. Health mediates most of the education-hospitalization gradients. The heterogeneous results across age, gender, race, and ethnicity groups should inform further research on health disparities.
- ItemWho declines to respond to the reactions to race module?: findings from the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2016–2017(Springer Nature, 2021-09-19) Srivastav, Aditi; Robinson-Ector, Kaitlynn; Kipp, Colby; Strompolis, Melissa; White, KelleeThe inclusion of self-reported differential treatment by race/ethnicity in population-based public health surveillance and monitoring systems may provide an opportunity to address long-standing health inequalities. While there is a growing trend towards decreasing response rates and selective non-response in health surveys, research examining the magnitude of non-response related to self-reported discrimination warrants greater attention. This study examined the distribution of sociodemographic variables among respondents and non-respondents to the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (SC-BRFSS) Reactions to Race module (6-question optional module capturing reports of race-based treatment). Using data from SC-BRFSS (2016, 2017), we examined patterns of non-response to the Reactions to Race module and individual items in the module. Logistic regression models were employed to examine sociodemographic factors associated with non-response and weighted to account for complex sampling design. Among 21,847 respondents, 15.3% were non-responders. Significant differences in RTRM non-response were observed by key sociodemographic variables (e.g., age, race/ethnicity, labor market participation, and health insurance status). Individuals who were younger, Hispanic, homemakers/students, unreported income, and uninsured were over-represented among non-respondents. In adjusted analyses, Hispanics and individuals with unreported income were more likely to be non-responders in RTRM and across item, while retirees were less likely to be non-responders. Heterogeneity in levels of non-responses were observed across RTRM questions, with the highest level of non-response for questions assessing differential treatment in work (54.8%) and healthcare settings (26.9%). Non-responders differed from responders according to some key sociodemographic variables, which could contribute to the underestimation of self-reported discrimination and race-related differential treatment and health outcomes. While we advocate for the use of population-based measures of self-reported racial discrimination to monitor and track state-level progress towards health equity, future efforts to estimate, assess, and address non-response variations by sociodemographic factors are warranted to improve understanding of lived experiences impacted by race-based differential treatment.