Browsing Department of Veterinary Medicine Research Works by Author "Belov, George A."
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- ItemA proximity biotinylation assay with a host protein bait reveals multiple factors modulating enterovirus replication(PLoS, 2022-10-28) Moghimi, Seyedehmahsa; Viktorova, Ekaterina G.; Gabaglio, Samuel; Zimina, Anna; Budnik, Bogdan; Wynn, Bridge G.; Sztul, Elizabeth; Belov, George A.As ultimate parasites, viruses depend on host factors for every step of their life cycle. On the other hand, cells evolved multiple mechanisms of detecting and interfering with viral replication. Yet, our understanding of the complex ensembles of pro- and anti-viral factors is very limited in virtually every virus-cell system. Here we investigated the proteins recruited to the replication organelles of poliovirus, a representative of the genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family. We took advantage of a strict dependence of enterovirus replication on a host protein GBF1, and established a stable cell line expressing a truncated GBF1 fused to APEX2 peroxidase that effectively supported viral replication upon inhibition of the endogenous GBF1. This construct biotinylated multiple host and viral proteins on the replication organelles. Among the viral proteins, the polyprotein cleavage intermediates were overrepresented, suggesting that the GBF1 environment is linked to viral polyprotein processing. The proteomics characterization of biotinylated host proteins identified multiple proteins previously associated with enterovirus replication, as well as more than 200 new factors recruited to the replication organelles. RNA metabolism proteins, many of which normally localize in the nucleus, constituted the largest group, underscoring the massive release of nuclear factors into the cytoplasm of infected cells and their involvement in viral replication. Functional analysis of several newly identified proteins revealed both pro- and anti-viral factors, including a novel component of infection-induced stress granules. Depletion of these proteins similarly affected the replication of diverse enteroviruses indicating broad conservation of the replication mechanisms. Thus, our data significantly expand the knowledge of the composition of enterovirus replication organelles, provide new insights into viral replication, and offer a novel resource for identifying targets for anti-viral interventions.
- ItemInteraction of Poliovirus Capsid Proteins with the Cellular Autophagy Pathway(MDPI, 2021-08-11) Zimina, Anna; Viktorova, Ekaterina G.; Moghimi, Seyedehmahsa; Nchoutmboube, Jules; Belov, George A.The capsid precursor P1 constitutes the N-terminal part of the enterovirus polyprotein. It is processed into VP0, VP3, and VP1 by the viral proteases, and VP0 is cleaved autocatalytically into VP4 and VP2. We observed that poliovirus VP0 is recognized by an antibody against a cellular autophagy protein, LC3A. The LC3A-like epitope overlapped the VP4/VP2 cleavage site. Individually expressed VP0-EGFP and P1 strongly colocalized with a marker of selective autophagy, p62/SQSTM1. To assess the role of capsid proteins in autophagy development we infected different cells with poliovirus or encapsidated polio replicon coding for only the replication proteins. We analyzed the processing of LC3B and p62/SQSTM1, markers of the initiation and completion of the autophagy pathway and investigated the association of the viral antigens with these autophagy proteins in infected cells. We observed cell-type-specific development of autophagy upon infection and found that only the virion signal strongly colocalized with p62/SQSTM1 early in infection. Collectively, our data suggest that activation of autophagy is not required for replication, and that capsid proteins contain determinants targeting them to p62/SQSTM1-dependent sequestration. Such a strategy may control the level of capsid proteins so that viral RNAs are not removed from the replication/translation pool prematurely.
- ItemRole of Host Cell Secretory Machinery in Zika Virus Life Cycle(MDPI, 2018-10-15) Sager, Garrett; Gabaglio, Samuel; Sztul, Elizabeth; Belov, George A.The high human cost of Zika virus infections and the rapid establishment of virus circulation in novel areas, including the United States, present an urgent need for countermeasures against this emerging threat. The development of an effective vaccine against Zika virus may be problematic because of the cross reactivity of the antibodies with other flaviviruses leading to antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. Moreover, rapidly replicating positive strand RNA viruses, including Zika virus, generate large spectrum of mutant genomes (quasi species) every replication round, allowing rapid selection of variants resistant to drugs targeting virus-specific proteins. On the other hand, viruses are ultimate cellular parasites and rely on the host metabolism for every step of their life cycle, thus presenting an opportunity to manipulate host processes as an alternative approach to suppress virus replication and spread. Zika and other flaviviruses critically depend on the cellular secretory pathway, which transfers proteins and membranes from the ER through the Golgi to the plasma membrane, for virion assembly, maturation and release. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of interactions of Zika and similar arthropod-borne flaviviruses with the cellular secretory machinery with a special emphasis on virus-specific changes of the secretory pathway. Identification of the regulatory networks and effector proteins required to accommodate the trafficking of virions, which represent a highly unusual cargo for the secretory pathway, may open an attractive and virtually untapped reservoir of alternative targets for the development of superior anti-viral drugs.