Magnetic nanoparticle inks for syringe printable inductors

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Direct Ink Writing (DIW) additive manufacturing (AM) has the transformative potential to construct complex shapes and devices with a single apparatus by exchanging the printable material at the print head. Iron cobalt (FeCo), permalloy (Ni80Fe20), and iron (II,III) oxide (Fe2O3·FeO) nanoparticles with varying magnetic properties were incorporated in resins to explore the influence of particle loading on printability and inductor device performance. It was generally found that increasing particle loading increased ink viscosity, with a loading maximum approaching 29 – 42 vol% depending on the particle type and resin mixtures due to differences in particle shape and size and resin viscosity. With more magnetic content, composites had higher magnetic permeability and inductance. Syringe printable, colloidal, aqueous magnetic inks were made using both stabilized iron oxide and MnZn doped ferrite nanoparticles with added free polymers. MnZn doped ferrite inks are printed into toroids, sintered to improve magnetic permeability and mechanical robustness, and constructed into an inductor device. Inductors with high magnetic permalloy nanoparticle content were also syringe printed into toroids and hand-wound to demonstrate their viability in fabricating three-dimensional inductors. The effect of particle size on stability and printability was observed. The research presented in this thesis investigates various methods for formulating magnetic nanoparticle inks and evaluates the contributions of particle stabilization, free polymer content, solvent composition, and particle loading on the rheological behavior required for syringe printing. Material properties and device performances were characterized using methods such as zeta potential and settling studies to observe particle functionalization and stability, rheology to study viscoelastic flow behavior, and vector network analysis to measure inductance and device efficiency to showcase the viability of this technique to manufacture passive electronic devices.