UMD Theses and Dissertations

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New submissions to the thesis/dissertation collections are added automatically as they are received from the Graduate School. Currently, the Graduate School deposits all theses and dissertations from a given semester after the official graduation date. This means that there may be up to a 4 month delay in the appearance of a given thesis/dissertation in DRUM.

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 18744
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    Variations in Vocalizations of Fin Whales, Balaenoptera physalus, in the St. Lawrence River
    (1980) Edds, Peggy Louise; Buchler, Edward; Animal & Avian Sciences; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    Recordings were made of vocalizations from fin whales, Balaenoptera physalus from a fixed hydrophone in the St. Lawrence River between 28 June and 27 September 1979. Land-based observers monitored activity from a hillside hut while recordings were being made from a shoreline site. Photographs of dorsal fin variations were used to identify distinctive individuals. The 1522 sounds recorded were classified into 11 categories based on frequency and temporal characteristics. The predominant call was a descending sweep of frequencies. Parameters measured for this downsweep exhibited a dichotomy of characteristics which indicates calls with initial frequencies below 40 Hz have less variability than calls with initial frequencies above 40 Hz. In general, solitary animals produced primarily the lower frequency downsweeps. Higher frequency downsweeps were recorded from pairs or trios of fin whales. Solitary individuals did not exhibit unique variations in downsweep parameters. No clusters of values which might indicate uniquely individual ranges were consistently present in multiple animal recordings. The data suggest that the variability of fin whale vocalizations is primarily contextual rather than individual.
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    Knowledge and Attitudes of Montessori Teachers of Young Children as a Context for Guiding the Normalization and Self-Construction Process
    (1994) Schaefer Zener, Rita; Flatter, Charles; Human Development & Quantitative Methodology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate the degree of agreement between AMI trained Montessori teachers' knowledge and attitudes and Montessori's recommendations for guiding the process of normalization among young children and (2) to discover the reasons for differences from those recommendations. Normalization is the central process in the Montessori method. Except for a study by this investigator (Zener, 1993) guiding the process of normalization had not been researched since Montessori's work some forty-five to eighty-five years ago. Therefore, this investigation also provided current teacher experiences of guiding the process of normalization. One hundred sixty five Montessori teachers attending various regional and national conferences were surveyed with knowledge and attitude scales. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10% of the participants. Mean scale scores from 4.0 to 5.0 on a five degree Likert scale and a SD less than 1.0 were projected as satisfactory levels of agreement with Montessori's recommendations. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the scales, and content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. T-tests and ANOVAS indicated that demographic variables were not significant to the results.
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    Special Classes and Group Therapy: An Evaluation of Their Effects on Achievement and Behavior in a Public School Setting
    (1971) Weinstein, Howard G.; Goering, Jacob; Human Development & Quantitative Methodology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    This investigation was designed to test the relative effectiveness of four educational-treatment methods of providing adequate services for children with special learning problems in elementary school Special Learning Problems classes. The focus was on the relative effectiveness of these methods in bringing about positive achievement and behavior change. The subjects were 50 elementary school pupils enrolled in e ight existing Special Learning Problems (SLP) classes in Fairfax County, Virginia. The Ss represented a wide range of behavioral and/or educational disorders reflected in an equally wide range of inappropriate behavior and/or educational retardation of at least one, and generally two years. Each of the eight pre-established SLP classes was randomly assigned to one of four educational-treatment groups. Two SLP classes were assigned to each treatment group. The experimental methods consisted of special class placement and: (A) "Child Therapy Only" (CTO); (B) "Parent Therapy-Only" (PTO); (C) "Child and Parent Therapy" (CPT). In addition, a "Special Class-Only" (SEO) control group was included. Subjects in the CTO and CPT groups participated in 24, 90-minute group therapy sessions. The parents of the children in the CPT and PTO groups received 24, 90-minute parent group therapy sessions. The SEO (control) group did not receive group therapy nor did their parents. Group therapy sessions were conducted by trained and experienced group therapists from the Mental Health Center. The California Achievement Tests, The Wide Range Achievement Test, the Behavior Rating Scale, and the Human Figure Drawing Test were administered in mid-October, 1969 and repeated in mid-April, 1970. The difference between pre- and post-test scores were computed and the differences between treatment groups' mean gain scores were tested for significance by means of t-ratios. The null hypotheses tested were: Hypothesis 1. There will be no significant differences in mean gain scores on any of the achievement measures or on the behavior ratings between the control group (SEO) and any of the experimental groups (CTO, PTO, CPT). Hypothesis 2. No significant differences in mean gain scores on any of the achievement measures or on the behavior ratings will be found between the three experimental groups (CTO, PTO, CPT). Hypothesis 3. There will b e no significant differences in mean gain scores on any of the achievement measures or on the behavior ratings between those students designated as NEW (1st year SLP) and those FORMER students in SLP classes. The analyses of the results from the achievement and behavior measures provided, with only three exceptions, support for not rejecting the null hypotheses. With regard to Hypotheses 1 and 2, although only two comparisons reached statistical significance (i. e. , the CPT group obtained significantly higher CAT-Reading and WRAT-Arithmetic gains than the SEO group), it was found that the achievement mean gain scores were generally greater for the CPT group than for either the SEO group or for either of the other two experimental groups (CTO and PTO). In contrast, the SEO group obtained a greater behavior scale mean gain than any of the three experimental groups (CTO, PTO, CPT), although this difference did not reach significance. With only one exception (WRAT-Arithmetic), no significant differences were found between the NEW and FORMER groups. Subsequent to the experimental period, the NEW students demonstrated a significantly greater mean gain in Arithmetic than their FORMER group counterparts. Behaviorally, the FORMER group obtained a greater mean behavior rating gain than the NEW group, although not statistically significant. In general, the present findings provided no evidence for differential favorable effects from any of the educational-treatment methods utilized in terms of significantly greater achievement or behavioral gains. However, some noted trends were suggestive of the fact that perhaps each of the four educational-treatment methods is best suited for different situations, goals, and subjects. Further research was recommended.
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    The Influence of Behavior Rehearsal Techniques on Children's Communicative Behaviors
    (1973) Cassidy, Edward W.; Rhoads, David; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of behavior rehearsal techniques on the behavior of shy children as determined by a measure of verbal behavior. Answers were sought to the following questions: 1. Does participation in a behavior rehearsal program affect the verbal behavior of shy children? 2. Is there a difference between standard and personal hierarchies used in behavior rehearsal? 3. Is there a difference between group and individual behavior rehearsal approaches? The sample included one hundred seventy-seven elementary school children from nineteen fourth, fifth, and sixth grade classrooms. The subjects were pupils who had a history of low frequency of verbal participation in group and individual settings. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two principal treatments or a control group. The first treatment was identified as Behavior Rehearsal-Personal. In this treatment subjects developed their own personal anxiety hierarchy. The second principal treatment was identified as Behavior Rehearsal-Standard. In this treatment the subjects were assigned to rehearse items from a hierarchy developed by the experimenter. The two treatments were applied in both one-to-one and group counseling settings. Besides treatment and setting, sex of subject and counselor were used as classification variables and included in a 2^4 factorial analysis of variance design. At the conclusion of a four week treatment period the subjects were observed on the criterion behavior, unsolicited communicative response, during a thirty minute controlled discussion session. Analysis of the data demonstrated that there was no change in verbal behavior as a result of participating in a behavior rehearsal program. It appears that in this study the behavior rehearsal procedures had no differential effect on the verbal behavior of the shy children. No significant difference was found on any of the other factors which· were measured. Neither the treatment setting, nor the sex of the subject, nor the counselor appeared to have a significant effect on the final results of the study. Although research studies indicate that the behavior rehearsal technique should be an effective technique for shaping assertive behaviors, no such evidence was found in this study. Nor was support found for the traditional view that personalized hierarchies are more effective than standard hierarchies. The lack of research on the behavior rehearsal technique suggests that more intensive and systematic research is needed to assess the specific effects behavior rehearsal has on the behavior of shy children.
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    The Effectiveness of Differential Social Reinforcement Strategies in Facilitating Achievement Behavior of Lower Socioeconomic Status, Primary Grade Children
    (1971) Fishman, Harold; Matteson, Richard; Human Development & Quantitative Methodology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    This study was designed to ascertain whether Positive Social Reinforcement (PSR), Negative Social Reinforcement (NSR) and the condition of no verbal feedback (Control) have a differential motivational effect on the achievement behavior of low socioeconomic status, primary grade Ss. Two related objectives of this research were : (a) to determine whether black and white Ss are differentially motivated to achieve in response to the aforementioned three social reinforcement-feedback contingencies and (b) to determine whether Ss who are at different developmental levels are differentially motivated to achieve by these three classes of social reinforcement-feedback parameters.
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    Riots and Revolution: Food Riots in the Department of the Seine-et-Oise, 1789-1795
    (1994) Sanyal, Sukla; Cockburn, James; History; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    This dissertation is a diachronic study of the food riots that broke out in the department of the Seine-et-Oise from 1789 through 1795. The purpose of the dissertation is to study one of the most common forms of popular protest in France in all its complexity. This study traces the riots downs the years and situates them within a specific political and economic context. It argues that as the Political and economic circumstances changed, the riots changed in form and content from market riots to stoppages of convoys to invasions into the homes of farmers. The dissertation also examines how the Revolution affected the rioters, not only in their material lives, but in their thinking and ideology as well. Chapter II traces the breadth and scope of the riots. Chapter III is a study of the connections between the policies of the revolutionary governments towards the commerce of foodstuff and the outbreak of the riots. It is shown that the riots changed in form over the years as the rioters sought to deal with the consequences of governmental legislation at different periods. Chapter IV examines the causes of the riots. It studies the long term and short term causes of the riots as well as the immediate causes. In this context, the chapter examines the social structure of the Seine-et-Oise , the effects of the policy of liberalization of the commerce of foodstuff and the effects of war. Chapter V studies the motivations, the organization and the composition of the riot groups. It argues that the Revolution had a direct impact on the mentalities of the rioters. As the years progressed the outlook of the rioters became steadily more radical, and they came to believe that political rights, and a Constitution which protected their interests, would alone solve the problem of subsistence in France. The sources for this study are the administrative records, police records, judicial records, legislative edicts, price lists and propaganda pamphlets found in the Archives Nationales at Paris, the Departmental Archives at Yvelines and Corbeil-Essonnes and the Bibliotheque de la Ville de Paris.
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    Infant and Juvenile-Directed Care Behaviors in Adult Toque Macaques, Macaca Sinica
    (1985) Baker-Dittus, Anne; Animal & Avian Sciences; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    The identity of care-givers, and the distribution of care to young are examined in a free-ranging polygynous primate, Macaca sinica. Care behavior is used as one measure of investment in young. There is no evidence that dominance rank influences offspring sex, but high-ranking mothers provide more care to newborn infants than do low-ranking mothers. Mothers provide more care to infant and first year sons than to daughters. This supports Dittus's suggestion (1979, 1980) that mothers should schedule care to sons and daughters differently, providing high levels of care to sons before they emigrate from the natal group. Care to daughters is low per unit time, but continues over a long period because daughters remain in the natal group. Adult females, other than the mother, tolerate, groom and support young. These behaviors are low cost, relative to the high cost behaviors of nursing and carrying, which only mothers provide. Young tend to associate with adult female relatives. Unlike male-biased maternal care, adult female care is biased towards female young; and female young return care more than do male young . Adult female rank is positively correlated with the amount of support adult females provide to female young, and the amount of grooming they receive from female young. Adult female rank has no effect on any measure of association between adult females and male young. Taken together these findings suggest that reciprocal altruism has been important in shaping adult female interactions with young. Adult and subadult M. sinica males direct the low cost, affiliative behaviors of hugging, carrying and grooming towards male infants; and direct aggressive behaviors towards female infants. I suggest that the distribution of behaviors reflects their value to male and female young. Affiliative behaviors to male infants, and aggressive behaviors to female infants serve to channel infants into association with adults from whom they can learn appropriate sex-typical behaviors, and as such benefit both male and female infants. High cost care behaviors of support in agonistic interactions, and protection are provided only by the adult male, and are provided to male and female young equally.
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    (1996) Kilcarr, Patrick; Flatter, Charles; Human Development & Quantitative Methodology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    The purpose of this interpretive study was to examine the relationship that exists between a father and his son Who has Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Since very little information is extant describing the relationship between a father and his son with ADHD, an interview format was developed to explore paternal perceptions, affect, and behaviors in relation to raising a son with ADHD. Sixteen fathers from an upper-middle class socioeconomic environment, participated in a one hour phone interview. These interviews were tape recorded and later transcribed. The interview attempted to answer the five research questions driving this study. The narrative data was interpreted by using a qualitative research method developed by Ranata Tesch. method involved extracting themes (specific participant responses) and collapsing the themes into larger-overarching categories called metathemes. Metathemes represent shared thoughts and perceptions held in common by all participants. Ten metathemes emerged from the data. The metathemes included such topics as a father's decision to place a child on medication and how and when to use behavior management strategies. Editorial comments from the author preceded response segments from participants (these segments were indented and single spaced). The data indicated that fathers share a unique relationship with sons who have ADHD. Prior to diagnosis, the majority of fathers described the relationship as tense, frustrating, and often unfulfilling. The relationship following diagnosis was described as significantly more Positive and rewarding. This was attributed to two specific changes: 1. the advent of education for fathers' regarding ADHD issues; and, 2. medication. Fathers agreed that the most effective behavior management strategy was to remain calm, educated, and realistic regarding their Childrens' behavior. The intention of this research was to generate further questions regarding the father-ADHD son relationship. The results of this study are not and cannot be generalized to other cultlures or social groups. Further research is needed which addresses the impact of race, class, and culture on the father and son with ADHD relationship.
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    (1981) Alexander, Patricia; Garner, Ruth; Teaching, Learning, Policy & Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    This study, as an investigation of predictive accuracy, examined the relationship of subjects' performance on a non-linguistic measure of comprehension, the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, to their performance on linguistic measures of comprehension, graduated passages and questions from the Barnell-Loft Specific Skills Drawing Conclusions Series. These linguistic passages and questions were presented under silent reading and listening conditions. All third graders and fifth graders at a suburban Maryland parochial school served as the study population from which twenty subjects at each grade level were randomly selected. This sample was comprised of eighteen males and twenty-two females. All subjects received all treatment levels which consisted of four tasks administered in two sessions. Session I included the administration of the Raven's, with the added verbalization of item C-9, and passages and questions presented in a silent reading mode. In Session II all subjects completed passages and questions presented in a listening mode and the Slosson Intelligence Test. The graduated passages and question were contained in Comprehension Inventory I and II which were administered in counterbalanced format. Half of the subjects received Inventory I as the listening task and II as the silent reading task, while half received Inventory I as the silent reading task and II as the listening task. The first question under research in this study was whether there was a relationship between linguistic and non-linguistic predictive accuracy. A multiple correlation technique was used to ascertain the relationship between the Raven's and the listening and silent reading linguistic comprehension measures. A correlation coefficient significantly different from zero was achieved in the comparison of subjects' performance data for these tasks. The second question addressed by this study was whether the relationship between the non-linguistic and the listening linguistic measure of predictive accuracy would be stronger than the relationship between the non-linguistic and the reading linguistic measure of predictive accuracy. Through the use of a partial correlation technique it was determined that the relationship between the Raven's and the listening task was not statistically stronger than the relationship between the Raven's and the silent reading task. Both partial correlations, however, were determined to be significantly different from zero. The third question investigated by this study was whether there was a significant relationship between the Raven's, as a non-linguistic measure of predictive accuracy, and the Slosson, as a linguistic measure of intellig ence. The coefficient produced by the Pearson Product-Moment technique was assessed to be significantly different from zero. Finally, the study sought to ascertain if there were developmental differences in predictive accuracy. At test for related samples produced significant differences for all outcome measures in the direction of the fifth-grade subjects. These findings confirmed the hypothesis that older students would perform the specified tasks at a higher level of predictive accuracy than younger students. Possible explanations of the outcomes of this investigation, and their relationship to research in the areas of language/thought, analogous reasoning, intelligence/cognition, reading/listening and comprehension/prediction were discussed, along with implications for theory, research, classroom and diagnostic practices.
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    A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Demonstrations, Verbal Statements, and Hands-on Experiences on Correcting a Misconception of First-Graders Regarding Magnets
    (1987) Benbow, Ann E.; Lockard, J. David; Teaching, Learning, Policy & Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    The purpose of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of five instructional interventions which were designed to correct a size-related science misconception in a group of first graders. The particular misconception chosen for the study is the belief that larger magnets are always of greater strength than smaller magnets. These interventions consisted of: a. a demonstration lesson, b. a hands-on lesson, c. a verbal statements lesson, d. a demonstration-plus-verbal statements lesson, and e. a hands-on-plus-verbal statements lesson. At the beginning of each magnet lesson, students were first exposed to evidence contradicting the size-related magnet misconception. This was followed by the introduction of cognitive conflict via the use of a small weak rectangular magnet and a larger strong rectangular magnet to pick up paper clips. Finally, students interacted with two (apparently) identical rectangular magnets of clearly differing strengths. The second major component of each intervention was the use of iron filings and a magnet to "show" lines of force. The purpose of this last activity was to give the students some information about magnets that would assist them in accommodating the events witnessed in the first part of the intervention. Subjects were tested three days before the treatment, one day after treatment to determine change of knowledge effect, then six weeks after treatment as a check for knowledge retention. Six subjects were randomly chosen from each treatment group to be interviewed using a format based upon Novak's Interview-about-Instances (1984) prior to the instruction, and on two occasions (one day, and six weeks) after the instruction. It was hypothesized that a demonstration treatment would result in the highest frequency of students who received a score of 100% on four misconception-related items on the post-test. It was also hypothesized that the demonstration treatment would result in the greatest retention. Analysis of both test scores and interview data indicates that, although there is strong support for the corrective properties of a demonstration which directly confronts the misconception that a necessary direct relation ship exists between magnetic strength and magnet size, a demonstration alone is not more effective than all of the remaining treatments in achieving change of knowledge or retention. Therefore, there is a lack of support for both research hypotheses. Both treatments containing demonstrations, however, were more effective in achieving correction of the size-related misconception than the treatments consisting of a hands-on treatment alone and verbal statements alone.
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    The interaction between a parasitic barnacle, Loxothylacus panopaei (Cirripedia, Rhizocephala), and three of its crab host species (Brachyura, Xanthidae) along the east coast of North America.
    (1993) Alvarez, Fernando; Reaka-Kudla, Marjorie; Animal & Avian Sciences; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    Rhizocephalan barnacles parasitize primarily decapod crustaceans (Bocquet-Vedrine 1968, Overstreet 1983). The principal effect of the parasites is often the permanent sterilization of the hosts (Bocquet-Vedrine 1972, O'Brien & Van Wyk 1984). Regardless of the processes involved, the end result of the infection is the creation of non-reproductive individuals that will use resources that otherwise would be available to the healthy traction of the host population. The potential impact on the host population then resides in the accumulation of sterile resource-using individuals in each generation. Prevalences of barnacles on anomuran and brachyuran crabs have been reported in a number of studies (e.g., Walker 1985, Hawkes et al. 1986, Johnson et al. 1986, Wardle & Tirpak 1991 ). Rhizocephalan infections can reach very high levels locally, suggesting that entire host populations may have a greatly reduced reproductive capacity. However, in most host species, the pattern of distribution of parasites is not uniform throughout the host's range. I examined the crab-rhizocephalan interaction using the system composed by the barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei and three of its crab host species: Panopeus lacustris, Eurypanopeus depressus, and Rhithropanopeus harrisii, occurring along the east coast of the North America. Through experimental infections conducted in the laboratory, it was determined that B. harrisii of a wide range of sizes could be infected by L. panopaei. The complete life-cycle of the parasite was manipulated in the laboratory. Neither host molting frequency nor host molt increments differed significantly between parasitized and control crabs. Host survival was significantly reduced during the parasite's developmental period; the heaviest mortality of the host occurred in the megalopal stage.
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    Women Correspondents in Vietnam: Historical Analysis and Oral Histories
    (1988) Martin, Christine; Hiebert, Ray; Journalism; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    Although women correspondents have covered wars since the Spanish-American conflict, it was not until the Vietnam War that they achieved full access to the battlefield and equal opportunities to cover all aspects of the conflict. Easily attained army accreditation, the burgeoning women's movement and the unique nature of the Vietnam War - a Third World, essentially, political conflict - combined to offer women reporters unprecedented opportunities to cover the war and to prove themselves as worthy members of journalism's elite crew - war correspondents. More women covered Vietnam than any other war. They focused their coverage primarily on the "human interest" angle and the effects of war on its civilian and military victims. This traditional women's focus took on a new prominence in Vietnam, where an understanding of the social and political underpinnings of Vietnamese culture was essential to the success of the American war effort. As a result, the traditional news definition of war as battlefield was widened and the "women's angle" became central to war correspondence. This study presents an historical analysis of the evolution of the role of the woman war correspondent, from the Spanish- American conflict to Vietnam, and presents the oral histories of 10 women who worked as war correspondents in Vietnam.
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    (2003) Oh, Jooeun; Elsing, Evelyn; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    Gabriel Faure was a deeply influential leader in establishing modem trends in early twentieth-century French music. His individualistic compositions include both traditional and modern aspects incorporated into his own distinctive style. This doctoral project is a study of Faure's contributions to French chamber-music and explores especially his works for cello. In the first chapter of this dissertation, a brief biography of Faure is presented, and Faure's personal relationships with several influential contemporaries, including Camille Saint-Saens, are discussed. The second chapter describes Faure's highly effective career as Professor and then Director and reformer at the Paris Conservatoire. In the third chapter, Faure's chamber music is discussed, with emphasis on his works for cello. His works can be divided into three time periods, each representative of the composer's unique musical style and illustrative of Faure's stylistic development throughout his career. The fourth and final chapter examines the evolution of Faure's musical approach, while his complete works for the cello are analyzed and compared. Diverse reactions of his contemporary critics to Faure's late-period chamber works are also presented. As part of this doctoral project two recitals of works by Faure and his contemporaries were performed at the University of Maryland School of Music. The works performed in the first recital include Camille Saint-Saens' Romance for Violoncello and Piano, Opus 36 ( 1877); Maurice Ravel's Sonata for Violoncello and Violin ( 1920-22); Claude Debussy's Sonata for Violoncello and Piano ( 1915); and Faure's Violoncello Sonata No. I in d minor, Opus I 09 ( 1917). The second recital incorporated selections from all three of Faure's compositional periods: Elegie for Violoncello and Piano, Opus 2-1 ( 1880); Papillion for Violoncello and Piano, Opus 77 ( 1885), Romance for Violoncello and Piano, Opus 69 ( 1894 ), Sicilienne for Violoncello and Piano, Opus 78 ( 1898, originally 1893 ); Violoncello Sonata No. 2 in g minor, Opus I I 7 ( 1921 ); and Piano Trio in d minor, Opus I 20 ( 1922-1923 ).
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    (1997) Hsieh, I-Chun; Heifetz, Daniel; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    This dissertation consists of a performance project and extensive studies of selected works by Johannes Brahms, including the Violin Concerto, Sonatensatz, and three Violin Sonatas. The performance project was presented in two recitals at the University of Maryland, College Park, on November 14, 1997, and November 16, 1997. The first recital featured Brahms' s Sonatensatz in C Minor, Violin Sonata No. I, Op. 78 in G Major, and Violin Sonata No. 3, Op. 108, in D Minor. The second recital included Brahms' s Violin Sonata No.2, Op. 100, in A Major and Violin Concerto Op. 77, in D Major. Section One gives an overview of this dissertation project. Section Two introduces the violin virtuoso Joseph Joachim, his relationship with Johannes Brahms, and Brahms' s life and major violin works. This section also analyzes Joachim' s performance practice and his teaching style. The end of this section focuses on the influence of Joseph Joachim on Brahms' s Violin Concerto and indicates the differences between Brahms' s original manuscript and the version suggested by Joachim. Section Three is composed of the programs of the two recitals. Section Four consists of program notes for the two recitals. The first recital was performed by I-Chun Hsieh, violin and Roy Hakes, piano. The second recital was performed by I-Chun Hsieh, violin and Chia-Hsuan Lee, piano.
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    Baroque Plague Imagery and Tridentine Church Reforms
    (1990) Boeckl, Christine M.; Pressly, William; Art History & Archaeology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals: one, to assemble as many facts as possible about the plague, regardless of period, and to relate this material to images; and two, to present a well-defined group of religious baroque plague paintings in the context of social, political and religious history. This inquiry is primarily concerned with scenes that portray saints actively involved in charitable pursuits, dispensing the sacraments to victims of the most dreaded disease, the bubonic plague. Chapter I contains a bibliographical essay, divided into three parts: medicine, theology, and art history. The next chapter considers the sources and the formation of baroque plague iconography. The remaining two chapters discuss "documentary" plague scenes and how they relate to historic events. They are presented in two sections: Italy and transalpine countries. This interdisciplinary research resulted in a number of observations. First, these narrative plague scenes were produced in Italy and in Catholic countries bordering Protestant regions: Switzerland, France, Flanders, and in the Habsburg Empire (excluding Spain). Second, the painters were mostly Italian or Italian-trained. Third, the artists observed not only the requirements specified by the Church in the 1563 Tridentine Decree on the Arts but also reflected in their work the catechetic teachings of the Council. Fourth, these religious scenes were not votive paintings but doctrinal images that served either didactic or polemic functions. Fifth, the scenes were not intended as memento mori; rather, the iconology conveyed positive images which emphasized that the faithful needed the Roman Catholic clergy to gain life-everlasting. Sixth, these plague paintings were important documents not as recordings of the conditions experienced during an epidemic but as historic testimony of liturgical practices. Last, these selected scenes mirrored the baroque Church's views on the ultimate questions about life and death.
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    The Effects of Instruction in Sentence Combining and Revision on Ninth and Tenth Graders' Explanatory Writing
    (1989) Horstman, Franklin; Slater, Wayne H.; Teaching, Learning, Policy & Leadership; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    In this study, I examined the effects of instruction in sentence combining on three measures of student writing : 1.) syntactic fluency; 2.) overall writing quality; and 3.) sentence -combining ability. Sentence combining is a method of writing instruction in which students rewrite a series of sentences into one syntactically more complex sentence. Two teachers instructed experimental group one (37 students) in sentence combining applied to revision. The same two teachers also instructed experimental group two (37 students) in sentence combining alone. A third teacher instructed the control students (38 students) in the standard ninth-grade English curriculum. To examine syntactic fluency, I analyzed students' writing for words per T-unit, clauses per T-unit, and words per clause. To examine overall writing quality, two trained raters assessed students' writing using forced choice holistic scoring. I also assessed students' sentence-combining ability. On syntactic fluency, the control group demonstrated statistically significant gains for mean number of words per clause. On overall writing quality, the control group also demonstrated statistically significant gains. On sentence-combining ability, both experimental group one and experimental group two demonstrated statistically significant gains. While the results do not support the first two research questions, on sentence-combining ability, the results suggest that ninth-grade writers can be taught sentence combining in a four-week, intensive instructional unit. Additionally, results suggest links between rhetorical and psychological theories and writing. However, the limitations of the results also suggest further sentence-combining research.
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    The Folklore and Life of My Native Country in Pictorial Terms
    (1967) Al-Harithi, Naziha Rashid; Maril, Herman; Art; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    The content of this thesis exhibition is involved in exploration of the folklore and life of the people of my native country in terms of a more contemporary painting language. Color symbols and patterns play a great role in these concepts.
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    Development and Preliminary Validation of the Religious Identity Development Scale
    (2002) Veerasamy, Suthkaran; Hoffman, Mary Ann; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure of religious identity development, the Religious Identity Development Scale (RIDS). The study also explored the relationship among religious identity development, anxiety and dogmatism to determine convergent and discriminant validity for the RIDS. The concurrent validity for the RIDS was determined by exploring the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations. The religious identity measure that was validated in this study was based on a proposed model of religious identity development, the Experiential/Rational Model of Religious Identity Development. The participants for the study were 211 students and adults from the Midwest and East coast. They completed the Religious Identity Development Scale (RIDS; V. Suthakaran, 2002), the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale (Rokeach, 1960), the State subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Scale (Spielberger, 1983), Age Universal Intrinsic-Extrinsic Scale (Gorsuch & Venable, 1983), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960). Exploratory factor analysis supported a six-factor model better than a seven-factor model. Discriminant validity was demonstrated by the negative correlations of the Acceptance status with anxiety and dogmatism, and the negative correlation of the Cognitive-Rationalization status with anxiety. Convergent validity was demonstrated by the positive correlations of the Concrete, Relational and Cognitive - Rationalization statuses with dogmatism, and the positive correlation of the Confusion status with anxiety. Some evidence, albeit modest, was found for concurrent validity, in that the Relational status was positively correlated with extrinsic religious orientation, and the Exploration status was positively correlated with intrinsic religious orientation. The negative correlation of the Cognitive-Rationalization status and the Confusion status with intrinsic religious orientation also provided tentative evidence for concurrent validity. Additional preliminary support for the concurrent validity of the RIDS was provided by examining the relationship of the six statuses with a two-dimensional definition of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation. Finally, results appeared to indicate that the internal consistencies and test-retest reliabilities were adequate, except for the Relational status. The methodological limitations of the study and implications for counseling psychology were discussed. Suggestions for future research for refinement of methodology were offered.
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    The Washington Bronze Dionysos
    (1994) Bennet, Susanne Klejman; Venit, Marjorie Susan; Art History & Archaeology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    A life-size bronze of a nude youth was discovered in a river in Asia Minor in the early 1960's. The bronze no longer had the iconographic attributes that it had once held in its hands, but the head presented features which made it possible to identity the figure as representing the god Dionysos. The sculptor drew upon earlier prototypes, specifically a figure called the Westmacott athlete, which has been tentatively attributed to the Greek sculptor Polykleitos. The head of the statue reflects a different, possibly female, prototype. An investigation of a group of Roman life-size and three quarter life-size bronzes reveals that the iconographic details which identity the Washington Bronze also place it outside the category of lamp hearers to which the majority of the other statues belong. The physiques of the majority of the lamp bearers and of the Washington Bronze, however, reflect the same Polykleitan prototypes. The identification of the Washington Bronze as a devotional rather than functional statue is made through a study of the literary, religious, and archaeological evidence. The evolution in the iconography of the god is traced through his portrayals on Greek vases and in Graeco-Roman bronze and marble statuary. The Bronze was created in the Eastern Roman Empire. Through a comparative analysis of other bronzes it can be dated within the period between the beginning of the Augustan era and the third quarter of the first century A. D. A setting in the home of a devotee of the Dionysian Mysteries is adduced.
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    The Effects of Variation in the Amount of Play Materials on the Play Behavior of the Preschool Child
    (1978) Rechsteiner, Ann E.; Leeper, Sarah L.; Human Development & Quantitative Methodology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    Major questions have arisen concerning the function of play in the development of the young child. Changing attitudes towards the significance of play reflect changing social patterns. The present study was concerned with the effect that a removal of a specified amount of play material had on the play behavior of young children. Ten intact groups of children from the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area ranging in age from three to five years old were studied by this researcher. A time sampling technique using a modified version of DUSOPAC was used to measure the play behavior of the groups. The data collected by the observers were compiled and analysed using a one way ANOVA for a repeated measure design for each of the eleven variables (Disruptive, Unoccupied, Solitary, Onlooker, Parallel, Associative, Cooperative, Not Play, Child-Child, Child-Adult, Child-Self.) The findings indicated that a significant relationship (at the .05 significance level) existed between the amount of social play observed and the amount of play equipment that was available to the young child. Less social play was observed when the material was removed on the first treatment day than when the material was present. No significant relationships were observed between the amount of equipment available and the amount of non-social play, the amount of child-child interaction, the amount of child-self interaction, or the amount of child-adult interaction that occurred. Investigation of the mean score values revealed trends for both interaction patterns and play behavior. Females were found to display more child-self interaction behavior and males more child-child interaction behavior. Also, for all days of observation, regardless of treatment, the most frequently occurring interaction behavior was child-child followed by child-self. The least frequently occurring interaction behavior was child-adult. For play behavior for all days of observation, regardless of treatment, males displayed more disruptive, unoccupied, associative, cooperative, parallel and social play behavior than did females. Females were found to display more solitary, onlooker, not-play and non-social play behavior than were males. These findings were not in agreement with Langlois, Gottfried and Seay (1973), and Sitzky, Haywood and Isett (1970 ). The results of this study seem to indicate that there is a need for more research to 1) update earlier studies; 2) study the role of play in the development of social interactions; 3) investigate saturation levels of equipment as they relate to a child's play; 4) to explore in more detail environmental influences on play behavior.