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- ItemLand Tenure, Property Ownership, and Home Mortgages in the Late Nineteenth Century: A Case Study of Baltimore's Germans(1976) Vill, Martha J.; Groves, Paul A.; Geography; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)During the late nineteenth century the rapidly expanding urban population of the United States created an increased demand for housing. At the same time, mortgage money for the finance of home purchases was in short supply because of the availability of more lucrative investment opportunities elsewhere and because there were legal restrictions on the power of banks to lend money on real estate . Recent literature has emphasized the importance of property ownership among different components of the population, including immigrant groups. Little attention has been paid to the process of property acquisition or to the patterns of land tenure which resulted. An immigrant population, handicapped in numerous ways, was likely to have limited access to available mortgage financing, thereby limiting its ability to purchase property. Yet, the literature suggests that immigrants actively acquired property. This study examines some preliminary ideas about tenure patterns and home mortgages within immigrant residential areas, using a sample of Baltimore's Germans as a case study. The argument presented is that housing acquisition was facilitated by the activities of the immigrants themselves. In view of the restrictions on the supply of mortgage money, financing for property purchases had to come from sources independent of the city's major financial institutions, and the immigrants had to generate their own sources of capital. It was expected that tenants and landlords would have common national origins, another reflection of the immigrants' reliance on members of their own group for housing. Another expectation of the study was that Germans of different origins in Germany would exhibit different tenure patterns. Arguing that the term "German" was an imprecise indicator of national origins, and that the residential patterns of immigrants from different parts of Germany were distinct, it was expected that this diversity would also find expression in tenure patterns. The selection of the sample areas in the study was, therefore, conditioned by the need to isolate areas inhabited by Germans of diverse origins. Land tenure, property ownership, and relationships between landlords and tenants were analyzed. The hoped for differences in rates of property ownership did not materialize, and home ownership was not systematically related to age, income, or family employment. The findings do indicate, however, that home ownership was within the grasp of people with relatively low income. The mechanism which enabled home purchasers to obtain mortgages was the building and loan associations which were organized and directed by men whose origins, occupations, and residences reflected those of the associations' clientele. Thus, the hypothesis that immigrants generated their own mortgage funds was confirmed. The findings of the study concerning landlords and tenants further substantiate the argument that the provision of housing was accomplished by the immigrants themselves. Landlords' residences were close to the properties they rented, and there was a marked tendency for tenants to rent from landlords who shared their German origins.
- ItemRoger Williams Park: Providence, Rhode Island's Response to the American Urban Parks Movement, 1868-1892(1988) Barbeau, Laura Jo; Caughry, John; American Studies; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)As a result of industrialization and growth, early nineteenth century urbanites began to lose accessible natural environments. Concern among the middle classes and social elite gave birth to the Rural Cemetery Movement in 1831, which spurred the creation of New York's Central Park in 1858. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, it was the nation's first example of what became t he Urban Parks Movement. The movement embraced a new landscape aesthetic and philosophy focusing on man's relation to nature and the moral and social benefits of this relationship. Vital to this framework was a belief in the park's ability to improve the social behavior and artistic sensitivities of the lower and working classes. This case study examines how Providence, Rhode Island experienced the Urban Parks Movement from 1868 to 1892. During a three-phase process of implementation , conflict arose over issues of moral improvement, civic boosterism, and real estate speculation. After public debate concerning its location, Providence's first substantial public park, Roger Williams Park, was officially approved by the city government in 1872. Six years later the park was designed by Horace Cleveland in accordance with the landscape aesthetic of the Urban Parks Movement. Cleveland was an associate of Olmsted and one of the nation's few noteworthy nineteenth century landscape architects. This study has utilized primary sources such as mayoral correspondence , public addresses , annual reports, real estate deeds, and plot maps to trace Providence's park-making process. My study of Roger Williams Park concludes in 1892 with the completion of Cleveland's plan and the addition of three hundred acres to the park. This thesis shows how the development of an urban park is the product of particular social and cultural forces.
- ItemThe Effect of Behavioral Objectives on Measures of Learning and Forgetting on High School Algebra(1972) Loh, Elwood Lockert; Walbesser, Henry H.; Mathematics and Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)During the past decade, the number of educators who advocate the use of behavioral objectives in education has increased. The increase in the number of advocates of behavioral objectives has been followed by an increasing awareness of the need for empirical research to give credence to such a viewpoint. At present, there is not a substantial number of research studies in which behavioral objectives have been used as a manipulated variable. In previously reported learning studies in which behavioral objectives have been used as an experimental variable, measures of learning and measures of forgetting have been derived from achievement scores. The results obtained in the learning studies have not been singular in support of the use of behavioral objectives, however, the results obtained in forgetting studies have consistently supported their use. This two part study investigated the effect of presenting behavioral objectives to students during the initial phase of a learning program. There were six criterion variables observed: index of learning, rate of learning, index of forgetting, rate of forgetting, index of retention, and index of efficiency. Two 2-year algebra one classes with a total of 52 students were randomly partitioned into two treatment groups for the learning phase of the study. The classes were further randomly partitioned into three retention groups for the forgetting phase of the study. The instructional materials were programmed within the framework of a learning hierarchy. The use of the learning hierarchy facilitated the use of a procedure for separating behaviors not yet possessed by a student from behaviors previously acquired. This was accomplished by presenting students with preassessment tasks prior to instruction for a behavior in the learning hierarchy. If the subject's response to the preassessment task indicated that he possessed the behavior, instruction was not given for that behavior. If the response indicated that the subject had not previously acquired the behavior, instruction was presented. The measures of the time needed to acquire the behavior were subsequently used to compute the six experimental measures. Three retention periods of 7 calendar days, 14 calendar days, and 15 to 21 calendar days were used for the forgetting phase of the study. The results of the three retention periods were pooled for the two forgetting measures, the index of retention, and the index of efficiency. The data collected in the study were analyzed by six separate tests using a one-way analysis of variance. A 0.05 level of significance was used for each of the six tests. The following results were obtained: 1. The index of learning for students who were informed of behavioral objectives during the initial phases of the learning program was not greater than the index of learning for students who were not so informed. 2. The rate of learning for students who were informed of behavioral objectives during the initial phases of the learning program was not greater than the rate of learning for students who were not so informed. 3. The index of forgetting for students who were informed of behavioral objectives during the initial phases of the learning program was not less than the index of forgetting for students who were not so informed. 4. The rate of forgetting for students who were informed of behavioral objectives during the initial phases of the learning program was not less than the rate of forgetting for students who were not so informed. 5. The index of retention for students who were informed of behavioral objectives during the initial phases of the learning program was not greater than the index of retention for students who were not so informed. 6. The index of efficiency for students who were informed of behavioral objectives during the initial phases of the learning program was not greater than the index of efficiency for students who were not so informed. It was concluded that the results of the study do not support the use of behavioral objectives as a procedure for improving either measures of learning or measures of forgetting which are functions of the time needed to reach criterion in a learning program using programmed instruction for teaching an algebraic topic to below average mathematics students in senior high school. It was recommended that further research is needed to determine a reliable and valid procedure for measuring learning and forgetting. It was also recommended that alternatives to programmed instruction be considered for learning and forgetting studies.
- ItemExperimental and Theoretical Characterization of Effective Interactions Near 132Sn(1987) Stone, Craig A.; Walters, William B.; Chemistry; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)Experimental investigations have been undertaken to study the multiplet structure in six nuclei near 132Sn: 132,130Sb, 131,129,127Sb, and 132Te. Experiments were performed using ion beams of mass-separated fission products produced by the TRISTAN mass separator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Extensive four-detector gamma-gamma coincidences, gamma-multiscaling and conversion-electron data have been collected. Ultralarge shell model calculations were performed using the VLADIMIR shell model code on the Cray/CDC 7600 supercomputer system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These calculations were designed to look at the performance of the Kallio-Kolltveit and Siemen's g-matiix potentials on the 1-3 quasiparticle nuclides in the gddsh model space. Results show that realistic potentials work well on nuclei near 132Sn but show problems with 129,130Sn and 131Sb which can not be accounted for by core-polarization corrections. Problems are shown to be due to the use of a potential derived with the Scott-Moszkowski separation metl1od. The separation distance was demonstrated to have a weak dependence on the principal quantum number but a strong dependence on the orbital angular momentum. This suggests the Kallio-Kolltveit potential is underestimating the strength of the h11/2 interactions in 129,130Sn and 131Sb.
- ItemThe Life Cycles, Ecology, and Evolution of the Witch-hazel Leaf Gall Aphid, Hormaphis hamamelidis (Fitch) (Homoptera: Aphidida)(1987) von Dohlen, Carol Dean; Gill, Doulgas E.; Zoology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)Two divergent life cycles based on geographic location have been documented for the witch-hazel leaf gall aphid, Hormaphis hamamelidis (Fitch, 1851). At low elevations in northern Virginia, the aphid was found to have seven distinct generations alternating between the primary host, Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.), and a secondary host, river birch (Betula nigra L.). These findings confirm the original published life cycle description from the same locality. A second, abbreviated life cycle consisting of only three generations restricted to witch-hazel was discovered at high (1000 m) elevations in north central and northwestern Virginia. Aphids with each life cycle were sympatric at an intermediate elevation site. Based on available life cycle and geographic data, a preliminary Phylogeny of the tribe Hormaphidini is proposed that suggests an unusual polarity in the evolution of aphid life cycles. Several features of intraspecific interactions and host-plant relations were examined in both lowland and highland populations of Hormaphis. In contrast to previous publications documenting severe competition, density effects, and habitat heterogeneity for another galling, host-alternating aphid, Pemphigus betae on Populus angustifolia, the effects of density and host-plant qualities on Hormaphis hamamelidis were fewer and more benign. Aphids did not compete for gall sites, and gall Position and final leaf area did not influence reproduction. High gall densities negatively affected gall growth and aphid fecundity. Factors accounting for the differences in Population dynamics between Hormaphis and Pemphigus are hypothesized and discussed.