Earth Mover’s Distance-Based Tool for Rapid Screening of Cervical Cancer Using Cervigrams

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Shrivastav, K.D.; Arambam, P.; Batra, S.; Bhatia, V.; Singh, H.; Jaggi, V.K.; Ranjan, P.; Abed, E.H.; Janardhanan, R. Earth Mover’s Distance-Based Tool for Rapid Screening of Cervical Cancer Using Cervigrams. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 4661.


Cervical cancer is a major public health challenge that can be cured with early diagnosis and timely treatment. This challenge formed the rationale behind our design and development of an intelligent and robust image analysis and diagnostic tool/scale, namely “OM—The OncoMeter”, for which we used R (version-3.6.3) and Linux (Ubuntu-20.04) to tag and triage patients in order of their disease severity. The socio-demographic profiles and cervigrams of 398 patients evaluated at OPDs of Batra Hospital & Medical Research Centre, New Delhi, India, and Delhi State Cancer Institute (East), New Delhi, India, were acquired during the course of this study. Tested on 398 India-specific women’s cervigrams, the scale yielded significant achievements, with 80.15% accuracy, a sensitivity of 84.79%, and a specificity of 66.66%. The statistical analysis of sociodemographic profiles showed significant associations of age, education, annual income, occupation, and menstrual health with the health of the cervix, where a p-value less than (<) 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The deployment of cervical cancer screening tools such as “OM—The OncoMeter” in live clinical settings of resource-limited healthcare infrastructure will facilitate early diagnosis in a non-invasive manner, leading to a timely clinical intervention for infected patients upon detection even during primary healthcare (PHC).