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Publicly Detectable Watermarking for Intellectual Property Authentication in VLSI Design

dc.contributor.authorQu, Gang
dc.identifier.citationG. Qu. "Publicly Detectable Watermarking for Intellectual Property Authentication in VLSI Design," IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, Vol. 21, No. 11, pp. 1363-1368, November 2002.en
dc.description.abstractHighlighted with the newly released intellectual property (IP) protection white paper by VSI Alliance, the protection of virtual components or IPs in very large scale integration (VLSI) design has received a great deal of attention recently. Digital signature/watermark is one of the most promising solutions among the known protection mechanisms. It provides desirable proof of authorship without rendering the IP useless. However, it makes the watermark detection, which is as important as watermarking, an NP-hard problem. In fact, the tradeoff between hard-to-attack and easy-to-detect and the lack of efficient detection schemes are the major obstacles for digital signatures to thrive. In this paper, the authors propose a new watermarking method which allows the watermark to be publicly detected without losing its strength and security. The basic idea is to create a cryptographically strong pseudo-random watermark, embed it into the original problem as a special (which the authors call mutual exclusive) constraint, and make it public. The authors combine data integrity technique and the unique characteristics in the design of VLSI IPs such that adversaries will not gain any advantage from the public watermarking for forgery. This new technique is compatible with the existing constraint-based watermarking/fingerprinting techniques. The resulting public–private watermark maintains the strength of a watermark and provides easy detectability with little design overhead. The authors build the mathematical framework for this approach based on the concept of mutual exclusive constraints. They use popular VLSI CAD problems, namely technology mapping, partitioning, graph coloring, FPGA design, and Boolean satisfiability, to demonstrate the public watermark’s easy detectability, high credibility, low design overhead, and robustness.en
dc.format.extent350524 bytes
dc.subjectcopy detectionen
dc.subjectdata integrityen
dc.subjectinformation hidingen
dc.subjectintellectual property protectionen
dc.subjectmutual exclusive constraintsen
dc.subjectvirtual componenten
dc.titlePublicly Detectable Watermarking for Intellectual Property Authentication in VLSI Designen
dc.relation.isAvailableAtA. James Clark School of Engineeringen_us
dc.relation.isAvailableAtElectrical & Computer Engineeringen_us
dc.relation.isAvailableAtDigital Repository at the University of Marylanden_us
dc.relation.isAvailableAtUniversity of Maryland (College Park, MD)en_us
dc.rights.licenseCopyright © 2002 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems. This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Such permission of the IEEE does not in any way imply IEEE endorsement of any of the University of Maryland's products or services. Internal or personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution must be obtained from the IEEE by writing to By choosing to view this document, you agree to all provisions of the copyright laws protecting it.

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