Inducing Autophagic Cell Death by Nsp5 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
Yang L, Wang R, Ma Z, Wang Y and Zhang Y. Inducing Autophagic Cell Death by Nsp5 of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Austin Virol and Retrovirology. 2015; 2(2): 1014.
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Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) leads to severe economic losses to the swine-producing industry. Many unclear questions remain on pathogenesis of PRRS virus (PRRSV), including the mechanism of PRRSV-induced cell death. In this study, we cloned and expressed a PRRSV non-structural protein, nsp5, and discovered that it induced cell death in cultured cells. The nsp5 protein localized in cytoplasm and majority of the protein concentrated in perinuclear region. Along with extension of incubation time, the nsp5 tended to form puncta and polarized besides nucleus. An interesting observation was that the nsp5 expression induced cell death. Cell viability assay showed that the cells with nsp5 expression had over 2-fold more cell death than cells with empty vector. Further study indicated that the nsp5 induced cell death via autophagy. Treatment with 3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor, blocked the nsp5- induced cell death. These results suggest that nsp5 might play an important role in PRRSV-induced cell death. Further examination on the mechanism is warranted.