Cultural differences in prejudice between individual- and group-oriented cultures
Stangor, Charles G
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The present dissertation investigated cultural differences in the degree and dynamics of prejudice between individual- and group-oriented cultures. In Study 1, in the US where personal responsibility and individual's capitalistic/meritocratic achievements are emphasized, participants reported greater distance to groups based on personal qualities (e.g., heavy drinkers) than in South Korea, and competition for employment was positively associated with prejudice toward various groups (but not in South Korea). In South Korea where the holistic/essential quality, the self-ingroup overlap, and relationships within ingroups are emphasized, participants reported greater distance to groups perceived as essentially different from the majority (e.g., different race) than in the US. In Study 2, the emphasis on individual achievements consistently predicted social hierarchy beliefs in the US (but not in South Korea), whereas the emphasis on roles/positions within ingroups consistently predicted both social and biological hierarchy beliefs in South Korea (but not in the US). In Study 3, the emphasis on individual uniqueness was negatively associated with social distance to non-normative groups (e.g., homosexuals) only in the US, whereas the value of conformity with norms/conventions predicted social distance to low SES (e.g., poor/uneducated/homeless), non-normative, and value-based (e.g., people whose opinions are different from mine in religious issues) target groups both in the US and South Korea. Conformity with norms/conventions also predicted social distance to racial/ethnic outgroups (e.g., non-Koreans to South Korean participants) only in South Korea. In addition, essentialism was associated with social distance to low SES groups in the US, whereas essentialism was associated with social distance to low SES, non-normative, and racial/ethnic groups in South Korea. Overall, the present research provided empirical evidence that cultural norms/values are associated with differences in the degree and dynamics of prejudice between individual- and group-oriented cultures.