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- ItemReactions to a Request for a Benefit in Communal and Exchange Relationships(1977) Clark, Margaret Snydor; Mills, Judson R.; Psychology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)Based on a distinction between communal relationships, in which benefits are given in response to the needs of the other, and exchange relationships, in which benefits are given with the expectation of receiving comparable benefits in return, the following hypotheses were proposed: 1) If a person has been aided by another, that other will be liked more when he requests a benefit than when he does not request a benefit, if the person expects an exchange relationship with the other. 2) If a person has been aided by another» that other will be liked more when he does not request a benefit than when he does request a benefit, if the person expects a communal relationship with the other. 3) If a person has not been aided by another, that other will be liked more when he does not request a benefit than when he does request a benefit, if the person expects an exchange relationship with the other. 4) If a person has not been aided by another, that other will be liked more when he requests a benefit than when he does not request a benefit, if the person expects a communal relationship with the other. Under the guise of a study of performance, female college students worked on a vocabulary task while a television monitor showed another female working on a similar task in another room. In order to manipulate the expectation of an exchange or a communal relationship, some of the subjects were told that the other was married, had a child, lived far from the university and that she and the subject would be discussing differences in interests in the second study (Exchange condition). Other subjects were told that the other was new at the university, did not know many people and that she and the subject would be discussing common interests in a second study (Communal condition). The other female finished the task, received one point and gave the subject aid on her task or did not give aid. The other female then requested a point from the subject or did not request a point. Finally, the subject's liking for the other and her expectations concerning the future discussion with the other were assessed. In general the results for the measure of liking provide evidence for the distinction between communal and exchange relationships. In support of the first hypothesis it was found that the other female was liked more in the Exchange-aid-request condition than in the Exchange-aid- no request condition. In support of the second hypothesis it was found that the other female was liked more in the Communal-aid-no request condition than in the Communal-aid-request condition. In support of the third hypothesis it was found that the other female was liked more in the Exchange-no aid-no request condition than in the Exchange-no aidrequest condition. The fourth hypothesis was not supported; there was no difference in liking for the other female in the Communal-no aid-request condition and in the Communal-no aid-no request condition. As would be expected from the distinction between communal and exchange relationships, liking was greater in the Exchange-aid-request condition than in the Exchange-no aid-request condition, marginally less in the Communal aid- request condition than in the Communal-no aid-request condition and less in the Exchange-aid-no request condition than in the Exchange-no aid-no request condition. The results for the measure of pleasantness of the future discussion with the other were also consistent with the distinction between communal and exchange relationships. The results on the liking measure demonstrate that equity principles, which have been useful in understanding a number of different social relationships, do not apply to all relationships.
- ItemRelations Between Latent Episodic Memory, Nap Habituality, and the Cortex During Childhood(2023) Allard, Tamara Lynn; Riggins, Tracy; Psychology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)During childhood, episodic memory demonstrates marked improvements that are supported by the protracted development of the hippocampus and a larger network of cortical regions. To date, most research has focused on associations with the hippocampus in this age group. Few studies have explored the contribution of cortical regions and no studies have explored this longitudinally. Thus, the first aim of this dissertation was to examine the longitudinal co-development of cortical thickness and surface area in memory-related cortical regions with a latent episodic memory variable in 4- to 8-year-old children (N = 177). Findings, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, demonstrated that a thinner cortex in multiple episodic memory network regions (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal sulcus, lingual gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, precuneus, lateral occipital cortex, superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus, and temporal pole) at age 4 predicted more rapid improvements in memory performance from age 4 to 6 years. Similarly, greater surface area in the precuneus and less surface area in the medial orbitofrontal gyrus at age 4 also predicted more rapid improvements in memory performance from age 4 to 6 years. Additionally, results revealed that several regions demonstrate parallel co-development with latent episodic memory performance from age 4 to 8 years. Specifically, greater changes in cortical thickness and surface area of the entorhinal cortex were associated with greater changes in memory from age 4 to 6 years. Furthermore, cortical thickness of entorhinal cortex and surface area of anterior cingulate cortex, entorhinal cortex, inferior parietal sulcus, lingual gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus showed co-development with latent episodic memory from age 6 to 8 years. Together, these findings suggest that cortical thickness and surface area of the episodic memory network support improvements in memory performance during childhood. However, these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Although age-related differences were one focus of this investigation, individual differences were another. Specifically, during childhood children transition away from afternoon napping. This transition has previously been associated with differences in memory consolidation abilities and hippocampal maturation. These associations suggest that habitual nappers require more regular sleep to consolidate memories due to an immature episodic memory network. However, limited work has examined these associations outside the hippocampus. Therefore, the second aim of this dissertation was to examine whether regions that support longitudinal memory development differ as a function of nap habituality (N = 44). Findings revealed significant differences in cortical thickness of right inferior frontal gyrus and surface area of lateral occipital cortex, such that non-nappers demonstrated a thinner cortex and greater surface area in these regions compared to nappers, though these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Thus, although there is some evidence that memory-related cortical regions may differ based on nap habituality, additional work is needed to support this claim. Together this dissertation provides new data on the co-development of memory with brain structure in the episodic memory network and identifies individual differences that may be associated with these brain structures.
- ItemCultural Humility and Outcome Rating Scale: Multilevel Mediation Effects of Dyadic Working Alliance(2023) Dixon, Katherine Morales; Kivlighan Jr., Dennis M.; Psychology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Abstract Current psychotherapy research on cultural humility (CH) indicates that CH is positively associated with client treatment outcomes and that working alliance may mediate the relationship between CH and treatment outcome. However, these studies have used cross-sectional data and have largely ignored the nested nature of therapist-client data sets. To address this gap in the literature, the current study applied a two-level, time-lagged, Multilevel Structural Equation Model (MSEM) to a longitudinal data set and examined whether working alliance mediates the relationship between client-perceived CH of the therapist and client-perceived symptom improvement (Outcome Rating Scale; ORS). The working alliance was conceptualized and operationalized as a dyadic construct (Cl-WA, Th-WA). Results were mixed; contrary to predictions, sessions in which clients perceived the therapist as higher in CH compared to average sessions were associated with poorer ORS scores. This relationship between cultural humility and client perceived improvement was not significant at the between-client level. The mediation hypothesis was supported at the within-client level but not at the between-client level. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
- ItemTrajectories of Clinician Competence and Student Engagement During an Adolescent ADHD Intervention(2023) Sommer, Samantha Lynn; Teglasi, Hedwig; Psychology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)School-based organization, time management, and planning skills-related (OTMP) interventions have been developed to address academic and organizational difficulties students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder face (ADHD), especially when entering secondary school (DuPaul et al., 2012; Evans et al., 2018; Villodas et al., 2014). For OTMP interventions to be reliably administered, interventionists must be appropriately trained to not only implement session procedures that adhere to intervention protocol, but to also adjust their responses to individual students to maintain quality interactions, which is referred to as competence (Goense et al., 2016; Perepletchikova et al., 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that the constructs, interventionist competence and student engagement, would significantly change over the course of a 16-session school-based intervention for adolescents with ADHD and academic challenges. Specific student characteristics were also expected to interact with initial levels or changes in competence and engagement over time. Using an archival dataset (N= 111) and latent growth modeling, findings revealed that neither competence nor engagement changed significantly over time. However, initial levels of both constructs significantly varied. Further conditional growth modeling found that greater ADHD symptom severity negatively contributed to competence and that internalizing symptoms contributed uniquely and positively to competence. Although interventionist competence and student engagement did not exhibit significant change over time, certain student factors were associated with the quality of interventionists responses to students and with the degree to which students remain engaged with intervention materials.
- ItemClient Attachment Dimensions and Therapist Skills: A Longitudinal Analysis(2023) Gerstenblith, Judith; Hill, Clara E; Psychology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Although scholars have highlighted the usefulness of attachment theory for psychotherapy (e.g., Bowlby, 1988; Holmes & Slade, 2018; Mallinckrodt, 2010), minimal empirical research exists examining the relationship between client attachment and therapist skills. In this study, we first investigated the factor structure of the therapist- and client-rated Helping Skills Measure (HSM; Hill & Kellems, 2002) for 5,830 psychodynamic psychotherapy sessions of 202 adult community clients working with 25 doctoral student therapists in a university clinic. The multilevel-confirmatory factor analysis supported a 3-factor structure (Exploration, Insight, Action), stable across time, at the session level in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Next, using a dynamic structural equation model for 592 sessions of 37 clients working with 6 therapists using both the HSM and the Experiences in Close Relationships-Short Form (Wei et al., 2007), we found a slight increase in exploration and insight skills as rated by therapists, but no significant change in client attachment dimensions over time. For the model using the therapist-rated HSM, we found significant and positive auto correlations for Anxiety, Avoidance, and Action, and a significant and positive cross-lagged correlation for Avoidance in one session predicting Action in the next session. For the model using the client-rated HSM, we found significant and positive auto correlations for Anxiety, Avoidance, and Exploration, and significant and negative cross-lagged correlations for Anxiety in one session predicting Exploration and Action in the next session. We did not find any significant cross-lagged correlations for therapist skills in one session predicting client attachment dimensions in the next session. We provide suggestions for practice and research, including training in attachment-informed therapy to improve therapist responsiveness and linking associations between client attachment and therapist skills to client outcome.