ENGINEER, PERFORMER, PRODUCER: NEGOTIATIONS OF CONSTRUCTED ELEMENTS OF SOUND AND PERFORMANCE OF A JAZZ RECORDING.
Provine, Robert C
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This dissertation investigates the relationship between the engineer, the performer, and the producer in the creation of a jazz CD, first by laying a foundation for the need to study how a commercial recording is made, then by defining, in historical context, the development of the work of the engineer and the producer. Concepts for defining the performer are also discussed. The roles of engineer, performer, and producer are compared according to the author`s modus operandi, which is based on a thirty-year involvement in the recording industry in all of these positions. The literature review examines how physics, psychology, aesthetics, and music relate to recording processes and personnel and shows how art and science intersect and become inexorably linked during the creation of a jazz CD. An ethnographic analysis, from the time of the inception of the CD through the first two days of recording, follows the processes, procedures, and interactions between the engineer, the performers, and the producer. Problems and resolutions of session planning, studio logistics, musical goals, and personnel are discussed. Problems and resolutions during the edit sessions are also covered. With experimental data, the limits of performance acceptability of time differentials between entrances are tested. Altering improvisations through pitch and time manipulation and complete phrase alteration are considered. Because this CD was constructed, issues of perspective are at the forefront of the discussion in the mix portion of the recording process. Perspective, both left to right and front to back, sonic quality, and perceived acoustic--the room--are discussed. Finally, events create unexpected twists, and necessary changes are made to resolve these circumstances.