Music Theses and Dissertations

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    GABRIEL FAURE (1845-1924): INNOVATOR OF THE FRENCH MODERN STYLE AS SEEN IN HIS WORKS FOR CELLO AND PIANO
    (2003) Oh, Jooeun; Elsing, Evelyn; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    Gabriel Faure was a deeply influential leader in establishing modem trends in early twentieth-century French music. His individualistic compositions include both traditional and modern aspects incorporated into his own distinctive style. This doctoral project is a study of Faure's contributions to French chamber-music and explores especially his works for cello. In the first chapter of this dissertation, a brief biography of Faure is presented, and Faure's personal relationships with several influential contemporaries, including Camille Saint-Saens, are discussed. The second chapter describes Faure's highly effective career as Professor and then Director and reformer at the Paris Conservatoire. In the third chapter, Faure's chamber music is discussed, with emphasis on his works for cello. His works can be divided into three time periods, each representative of the composer's unique musical style and illustrative of Faure's stylistic development throughout his career. The fourth and final chapter examines the evolution of Faure's musical approach, while his complete works for the cello are analyzed and compared. Diverse reactions of his contemporary critics to Faure's late-period chamber works are also presented. As part of this doctoral project two recitals of works by Faure and his contemporaries were performed at the University of Maryland School of Music. The works performed in the first recital include Camille Saint-Saens' Romance for Violoncello and Piano, Opus 36 ( 1877); Maurice Ravel's Sonata for Violoncello and Violin ( 1920-22); Claude Debussy's Sonata for Violoncello and Piano ( 1915); and Faure's Violoncello Sonata No. I in d minor, Opus I 09 ( 1917). The second recital incorporated selections from all three of Faure's compositional periods: Elegie for Violoncello and Piano, Opus 2-1 ( 1880); Papillion for Violoncello and Piano, Opus 77 ( 1885), Romance for Violoncello and Piano, Opus 69 ( 1894 ), Sicilienne for Violoncello and Piano, Opus 78 ( 1898, originally 1893 ); Violoncello Sonata No. 2 in g minor, Opus I I 7 ( 1921 ); and Piano Trio in d minor, Opus I 20 ( 1922-1923 ).
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    PERFORMANCE OF THE VIOLIN CONCERTO AND SONATAS OF JOHANNES BRAHMS WITH AN ANALYSIS OF JOSEPH JOACHIM'S INFLUENCE ON HIS VIOLIN CONCERTO
    (1997) Hsieh, I-Chun; Heifetz, Daniel; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    This dissertation consists of a performance project and extensive studies of selected works by Johannes Brahms, including the Violin Concerto, Sonatensatz, and three Violin Sonatas. The performance project was presented in two recitals at the University of Maryland, College Park, on November 14, 1997, and November 16, 1997. The first recital featured Brahms' s Sonatensatz in C Minor, Violin Sonata No. I, Op. 78 in G Major, and Violin Sonata No. 3, Op. 108, in D Minor. The second recital included Brahms' s Violin Sonata No.2, Op. 100, in A Major and Violin Concerto Op. 77, in D Major. Section One gives an overview of this dissertation project. Section Two introduces the violin virtuoso Joseph Joachim, his relationship with Johannes Brahms, and Brahms' s life and major violin works. This section also analyzes Joachim' s performance practice and his teaching style. The end of this section focuses on the influence of Joseph Joachim on Brahms' s Violin Concerto and indicates the differences between Brahms' s original manuscript and the version suggested by Joachim. Section Three is composed of the programs of the two recitals. Section Four consists of program notes for the two recitals. The first recital was performed by I-Chun Hsieh, violin and Roy Hakes, piano. The second recital was performed by I-Chun Hsieh, violin and Chia-Hsuan Lee, piano.
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    Exploring and Propagating Oboe Music From Composers of South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern Heritage
    (2023) Helgerman, Michael Andrew; Hill, Mark
    Though the oboe has enjoyed both a rich history and contemporary renaissance as a solo voice, the instrument's repertoire bears some rigidity and limitations in representing composers from diverse backgrounds. A repertoire survey from a 2001 edition of the Double Reed Journal denotes a clear tendency towards homogeneity of composer background in the instrument's canon. After contacting oboe professors employed at universities across the United States, compiler Susan Lundberg published lists of concerti, sonatas, chamber pieces, and other works that "oboists should know"; every piece listed in the top ten results of each genre was written by a male composer of European or American descent. This dissertation project will serve as a small step among the many needed for the oboe's solo repertoire to evolve into a canon that equitably represents composers from all backgrounds. In particular, composers with South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern roots will enjoy the spotlight in this dissertation, as these cultures boast rich musical foundations whose synthesis with the modern oboe has yet to receive significant research.
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    The Cowbell in Music and Culture
    (2023) McGovern, John; Votta, Michael; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Cowbells are used as percussion instruments in a variety of musical settings today. Such uses represent a number of distinct musical practices. In this dissertation I attempt to chronicle cowbells in music from the first such use (the mid-19th century) to the present day, with a focus on historically linking and differentiating cowbell practices in orchestral music, in early musical theater and popular music, and in Cuban and Cuban-derived music. I argue furthermore that perceptions of the cowbell and its connotations, in the cultures that produce these musical practices, affect the way that the instrument is used and perceived. The word “cowbell” makes no differentiation between cowbells used historically for farming and the modern instruments descended from them. This, coupled with historical associations between cowbells and the carnivalesque exemplified by charivari practices, has led to perceptions of the cowbell, throughout its musical history, as an object of othering, humor, and/or derision.
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    SOUNDING SALVADORAN: POPULAR MUSIC AND POSTWAR IMAGINARIES OF SALVADORAN IDENTITY IN THE WASHINGTON, D.C. METROPOLITAN AREA
    (2023) Villalobos Benavides, Mariángel; Lie, Siv B.; Rodríguez, Ana Patricia; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    This dissertation explores the role of popular music genres in constructing and enacting an imaginary of national and diasporic community among the Salvadoran diasporic community in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area. Two music genres with rich transnational histories, rock de las buenas épocas and cumbia salvadoreña, are central to the analysis. The research investigates how cumbia salvadoreña may be considered representative of El Salvador by D.C.-based members of Departamento 15, an “imaginary” additional state of El Salvador formed by its citizens living in the diaspora. The genre aligns with the myth of the perseverant and patriotic immigrant, one who stays connected to their home country through remittances. Before the reign of cumbia salvadoreña, rock de las buenas épocas served as an avenue for Salvadoran youth to imagine alternative realities to those of mainstream Salvadoran society—a parallel of the counterculture movement of the 1960s in North America and Europe. Despite aesthetic differences, both genres are performed at events for the Salvadoran community in the Washington D.C. area, as emblems of nostalgia. I also explore how, in the diaspora, these narratives are reaffirmed and contested. For instance, second-generation Salvadoran Cindy Zavala (also known as La SalvadoReina), performs cumbia salvadoreña with a twist. She presents the stories that have surrounded her as the daughter of immigrants to showcase a "bitter" alternative to the joy and perseverance usually conveyed through the genre. Another example I present is 1.5-generation Lilo González, Jr., a musician who is part of the renowned D.C. punk scene, who has integrated cumbia into his socially committed music. This study is based on intermittent ethnographic research conducted from 2019 to 2022 in the D.C. area, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Key events I participated in included the Salvadoran Independence Day festivals in Maryland, which reaffirm the nostalgia that maintains the diaspora as a key player in the economy and national imaginary of El Salvador. The music performed at these festivals, especially cumbia salvadoreña and rock de las buenas épocas, strategically support this narrative, what has been referred to as the mythology of los hermanos lejanos (Rodríguez 2019, 170-174), the “heroic figure of the migrant entrepreneur” Pedersen (2012, 8), and the “model transnational citizens in the global division of labor” (Rivas 2014, 21). Throughout this dissertation, I refer to these mythologies as the narrative of the perseverant immigrant, stemming from the lyrics that describe an immigrant who is facing hardships and misses El Salvador, but nevertheless persists in their endeavor to succeed financially in a foreign country. Overall, this dissertation contributes to the understanding of the role of music in diasporic communities and the complexities of transnational cultural production.
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    THE AMERICAN TUBA SONATA: A SURVEY OF WORKS WRITTEN BETWEEN 1959 - 2019
    (2023) Cipriano, James; Votta, Michael; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    The purpose of this project is to explore the sonata repertoire written for tuba and piano by exclusively American composers. The musical selections occupy three distinct time frames during my educational and professional career and have been presented in three recitals in line with those periods. They were organized in the following manner; works that were standard repertoire for university students in the 1990s, works that appeared early in the 21st century that now hold a place in the standard repertoire, and works that have been composed within the last ten years:American Tuba Sonatas dating from 1959-1976 Walter Hartley - Sonata for Tuba and Piano Louis V. Pisciotta - Sonata for Tuba and Piano Alec Wilder - Sonata No. 1 for Tuba and Piano Bruce Broughton - Sonata for Tuba and Piano American Tuba Sonatas dating from 1998-2007Stephen Rush - Tuba Sonata Anthony Plog - Tuba Sonata Barbara York - Sonata for Tuba and Piano: “Shamanic Journey” John Cheetham - Sonata for Tuba and Piano American Tuba Sonatas dating from 2014-2019Quinn Mason - Sonata for Tuba and Piano: “Darkplace” Ian Lester - Sonata: “Hades: God of the Underworld” Frank Lynn Payne - Short Sonata Andrew Lewinter - Sonata for Tuba (or Bass Trombone) and Piano
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    OLD MUSIC FOR A NEW WORLD: PERFORMING STANDARD REPERTOIRE WITH CONTEMPORARY SENSIBILITIES
    (2023) Vaughn, Rhiannon Evans; Kier, Craig; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Society and current events shape the art of their time. Many works of operatic and song literaturethat are considered masterpieces have elements that are challenging to modern audiences–be it their composer’s personal beliefs, embedded racism and sexism, or other unfavorable aspects. How to deal with these controversial elements of standard repertoire is not wholly agreed upon and the divide on how to engage with them is often generational. Those of an older generation often espouse the inherent value of these works, whereas those of a younger generation struggle to see beyond their faults. This does not have to divide the classical world of singing–with sincere and careful thought, discussion, and research it is possible to engage with works that have a checkered past and to continue to grow the canon and our understanding of it. Supplementing materials accompanying this dissertation project including video recordings of each performance event.
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    A Pedagogical Guide to Chinese Art Song: Diction, Style, and a Selected Survey
    (2023) Shi, Liangjun; Ziegler, Delores; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    A unique hybrid of poetry and music, art song has been a constant art form attracting musicians to examine, study, and research as a serious genre. Since the 1920s, Chinese composers have been exploring this combination of Chinese poetry and music in various ways. This dissertation aims to provide a pedagogical guide for the study and performance of Chinese art song.The first chapter examines the vocal diction of Standard Chinese. The vowels and consonants in Standard Chinese are categorized into two major groups in 汉语拼音 (hànyǔ pīnyīn, Chinese Phonetic Alphabet): 声母 (shēngmǔ, initial) and 韵母 (yùnmǔ, final). At most, a syllable in Chinese can contain an initial, a medial, a main vowel, a final consonant, and a tone. This chapter presents a new diction alphabetic system based on traditional Chinese vocal practices and the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet, to achieve authentic pronunciation in vocal practices. Chapter Two is a survey of treatises on traditional Chinese voice pedagogy. It examines vocal aesthetics and practical concepts from these scholarships, providing pedagogical explanations and approaches. 字正腔圆 (zìzhèng qiāngyuán), the most important vocal principle, is achieved through the system of “head, belly, and tail” of a character. This chapter offers a detailed discussion on the pedagogy for each part of the articulation of a character and the practice of tones, supported by scholarship on these treatises. The important phenomenon 倒字 (dǎo zì) is illustrated with musical examples. Titled “From Poetry to Song”, Chapter Three traces the development of Chinese poetry and introduces the basic characteristics of each genre. With the exception of Shī-Poetry, which is to be chanted, most traditional poetic forms in Chinese literature are meant to be associated with singing and musical accompaniment, which may be considered a precursor to Chinese art song. This chapter traces the pioneers of Chinese art song and discusses their stylistic features through functional harmony, texture, compositional devices, linguistic inflection techniques, and other elements. It also examines the development of "authentic Chinese flavors" in the art song genre by discussing the tremor of the voice, traditional musical vocabulary, and the reformation of orchestral instrumentation. The final chapter focuses on performance practices and provides an example of the Lyric Diction Phonetic Alphabet System (LPA). It discusses vibrato choices, vowel color, glides, ornamentation, and the use of glottal sound. Additionally, the vocal practices for the pronunciation of certain characters are mentioned. Overall, this dissertation provides a scholarly and comprehensive guide for the study and performance of Chinese art song, encompassing aspects of vocal diction, pedagogy, poetry, musical style, and performance practices.
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    Music Literature During the Allied Occupation of Japan and Debates on the Future of Japanese Music, 1945-1949
    (2023) DeBell, Joshua Blake; Robin, William; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Research on how countries under military occupation developed their music range from studies of the American occupation of Germany to studies of the Allied Occupation of Japan. Even though studies on Japanese music under occupation mainly focused on how composers dictated this culture, Japanese scholars should also be considered because scholarly writings have historically influenced what styles and aesthetics the Japanese endorsed. This study examines music literature from the University of Maryland’s Gordon W. Prange Collection. From 1945 to 1949, this literature is characterized by scholars studying the hōgaku, European, and American art music traditions. They also advocated that readers appreciate composers, pieces, styles, and genres from European art music, American art music, or hōgaku to establish a new music culture for Japan. However, these authors were divided on whether this music should only employ Western and Japanese styles or be a fusion of both. By examining this literature, this study offers an analysis of an under-researched perspective on music during Japan’s occupation and provides a new musicological approach toward examining occupation cultures.
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    SOLO AND CHAMBER PIECES FOR VIOLA BY FEMALE COMPOSERS: LATE NINETEENTH TO TWENTY-FIRST CENTURIES
    (2023) Wang, Sinan; Murdock, Katherine; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    My dissertation performance project explores the captivating world of solo and sonata compositions for viola by female composers of the late nineteenth to twenty-first centuries. Through an exploration of this repertoire, this project seeks to illuminate the unique relationship between the viola and female composers, highlighting the ways in which these women, and many others, have contributed to and enriched the world of classical music. The unique connection between the viola and female composers is only recently coming to light; despite historical challenges and biases, these women have created significant compositions for the viola, resulting in a compelling and inspiring collaboration that has yet to be fully appreciated. My goal is to highlight the positive impact of this connection and to help bring a wider awareness to the works of these women composers.The first recital is a showcase of female composers from the United States. This program features No. III and No. X from Lillian Fuchs' Fifteen Characteristic Studies; Margaret Brouwer's Two Pieces for Viola and Piano; Jennifer Higdon's Sonata for Viola and Piano; and Nokuthula Endo Ngwenyama's Sonoran Storm for Solo Viola. The second recital presents the works of female composers from England. The program includes Morpheus for Viola and Piano by Rebecca Clarke; the Sonata for Viola and Piano by Elizabeth Maconchy; and Pamela Harrison's Sonata for Viola and Piano. The third recital showcases masterpieces by female composers from Germany and France. The program presents Three Pieces for Viola and Piano by Germany's Luise Adolpha Le Beau; and two French compositions, the Sonata for Viola and Piano, Op. 25 by Marcelle Soulage, and Fernande Decruck's Sonata for Viola and Piano.
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    VIRTUOSITY AS DISPLAYED IN THE SOLO PIANO, CHAMBER, AND VOCAL LITERATURE OF TCHAIKOVSKY, RACHMANINOFF, AND BRAHMS
    (2023) Kostadinov, Alexander; Sloan, Rita; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Virtuosity is defined by the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary as “great technical skill” and virtuosity in music continues to be a constant source of discussion for musicians. What value do virtuosic elements have in late Romantic music, particularly those featuring the piano, a virtuoso-friendly instrument? Do these elements enhance the overall musical impact of the repertoire and if so, how? Does it make a difference if the work is a solo piano work, piano chamber music or music for voice and piano? These are the questions that I will explore in this performance dissertation. Each of my three recitals will feature one of these three iconic Romantic composers: Tchaikovsky, Brahms, and Rachmaninoff. Included will be a piano concerto, two piano trios, a piano quartet, and three sets of piano/vocal works, all significant in the solo and collaborative pianist’s repertoire.By the mid-nineteenth century, pianist Franz Liszt and violinist Nicolo Paganini had paved the way to a new age of instrumental technical virtuosity. Along with expanding the possibilities of what instrumentalists could do, virtuosic elements in music have even influenced the very setting of music performance. As chamber repertoire started expanding and becoming increasingly challenging in the late-nineteenth century, chamber music performances shifted from more casual, at-home venues, to being performed in some of the larger and most prestigious concert halls. Chamber music historically had been simpler, often meant for performance at home by amateurs. This began to change with the quartets of Beethoven, especially the late quartets and certainly the Brahms’ G minor piano quartet was not composed to be played on an upright piano in someone’s living room. First of all, the performance of a forty five-minute complex chamber music work for four musicians is in itself a virtuoso accomplishment! Throughout the quartet, Brahms displays his mastery of counterpoint and thematic development, as well as his ability to balance individual instruments and create a cohesive ensemble sound. The use of virtuosic elements in the piano part adds to the complexity and richness of the work. As instrumentalists continued to become more virtuosic, composers continued creating more challenging works for them throughout the nineteenth century. Brahms, Rachmaninov, and Tchaikovsky wrote some of the most technically difficult music of the time. Since Brahms and Rachmaninov were both famous pianists and understood the capabilities of the piano, their compositions further challenged musicians. Tchaikovsky’s compositions demonstrated many technical challenges as well, as they were often composed in the style of Anton Rubinstein, who was one the greatest pianists of the time, praised for his musicianship and technical abilities. The vocal works which are included in these recitals (the four romances by Tchaikovsky, the vocal set Op. 38 by Rachmaninoff and the Brahms Zigeunerlieder) were chosen to demonstrate how these composers transitioned from writing accompanimentally to more expanded and technically demanding piano parts. Through these programs, I hope to demonstrate the variety and value of the virtuoso elements in these Romantic masterpieces and how this contributes to making mesmerizing and meaningful masterworks which continue to attract audiences today. Additionally, I will be performing music which speaks to me in a very direct and immediate way and which I hope will then speak equally significantly to the listener as well. This dissertation and recordings can be accessed in the Digital Repository (DRUM) at the University of Maryland.
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    "These Songs will Save our Language": Reclaiming Kiowa Language and Music through Kiowa Sound Resurgence
    (2023) Yamane, Maxwell Hiroshi; Rios, Fernando; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    This dissertation examines the intersection of Indigenous language reclamation and music, primarily among the Kiowa Tribe. Through multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork, interviews, music/language analysis, and participatory action research, I show how music plays a key role in the resurgence of Kiowa language and identity. I begin in Washington, D.C. by revealing how Kiowas (and other Indigenous Peoples) strategically use their own modes of storytelling and music making to resist the imposition of settler colonial narratives. Indigenous performers reclaim stories about their language initiatives and challenge problematic congressional language planning and policy. The dissertation then moves towards Oklahoma and examines the language efforts of a community-based institution: the Kiowa Language and Culture Revitalization Program (KLCRP). I show how KLCRP used Kiowa Christian hymns—which are performed in the Kiowa language and musical style— as a pedagogical approach to revive and strengthen forms of Kiowa sound and audibility, including speech, music making, storytelling, and listening. I frame the recovery of these practices as Kiowa sound resurgence. I explore the multiple ways in which Kiowas engaged in Kiowa sound resurgence through traditional and non-traditional pedagogies before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This dissertation contributes to interdisciplinary dialogues in ethnomusicology, Native American and Indigenous studies, and linguistic anthropology on Indigenous language reclamation and music scholarship. The case study of Kiowa sound resurgence illuminates how Kiowas creatively reclaim, revive, and resurge sound through Kiowa ways of knowing, doing, and being. The findings of this dissertation have relevance to both academia and Indigenous communities who are actively engaging in efforts of cultural reclamation and resurgence.
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    CELEBRATING THE VOICES OF WOMEN COMPOSERS IN THE SELECTED CELLO COMPOSITIONS FROM THE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES
    (2023) Choi, Hyun J; Kutz, Eric; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    This dissertation examines five cello compositions written during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by women composers, whose works have been largely forgotten in the cello literature until recent times. The works surveyed are Three Pieces for Cello and Piano by Nadia Boulanger; Sonatas for Cello and Piano by Luise Adolpha Le Beau, Henriëtte Bosmans, and Dora Pejačević; and Sonate Dramatique: Titus et Bérénice for Cello and Piano by Rita Strohl. Though far from being comprehensive, this paper aims to serve as a point of reference in providing an overview of the musical contents in each work as well as biographical and historical information on the composers and their works. For the two cello compositions whose published copy is not easily accessible in the United States (Dora Pejačevic’s Sonata for Cello and Piano and Rita Strohl’s Sonate Dramatique: Titus and Bérenice), the publisher information and the place of contact for access to the sheet music are included in the introduction section.
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    KALEIDOSCOPE: SELECTED MODERN DUOS FOR WOODWINDS AND PIANO BY AMERICAN COMPOSERS BETWEEN 1900-2000
    (2023) Adams-Park, Jihong; Sloan, Rita; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    In the early twentieth century, there was a surge in the number of compositions written in America for woodwind and piano duos. This was a result of the demand for compositions to be written in a neoclassical style. Neoclassical style not only played a critical role in the proliferation of the American duo genre for woodwinds and piano but also facilitated the saxophone’s move into the musical mainstream as a classical concert instrument. This compositional spike in duo creation is also a result of twentieth-century musical eclecticism and should be taken as an important element in the development of American music. Influences such as modernism, folk idioms, jazz and popular music were adopted and fused with classical structures to make duo compositions more accessible to contemporary audiences. The popularity of this duo genre among American composers has been relatively steady and likely will continue to grow. Duo music for woodwinds and piano is accessible for audiences, and it is efficient for collaborations in chamber performance settings.Three recitals were prepared and presented respectively on February 28, 2022, at Gildenhorn Recital Hall of the University of Maryland, November 12, 2022, and January 21, 2023, at the Sunshine Cathedral Church in Fort Lauderdale. The first recital featured duo compositions that use innovative melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic integration between the flute and the piano. The works performed were Sonata for Flute and Piano, Op. 14 by Robert Muczynski (1961), Sonata for Flute and Piano, Op.23 by Lowell Liebermann (1987), Sonata for Flute and Piano by Samuel Zyman (1997), Canzone by Samuel Barber (1961), Night Soliloquy by Kent Kennan (1936), and Vocalise for Flute and Piano by Aaron Copland (1971). The second recital featured compositions for saxophone and piano: Sonata for E-flat Alto Saxophone and Piano by Paul Creston (1945), Picnic on the Marne by Ned Rorem (1983), Duo for Alto Saxophone and Piano by Walter Hartley (1964), Dittico for E-flat Alto Saxophone and Piano by Halsey Stevens (1972), and Sonata for Alto Saxophone and Piano by John Worley (1975). The contrast among these compositions highlighted the major compositional styles from pre-1960 post-romantic to post-1960 contemporary style. The final lecture recital presented duo compositions with jazz influences composed in the mid- and late-1900s: Sonata for Clarinet and Piano No.2 by Gary Schocker (1999), Introduction and Allegro for Oboe and Piano by Alvin Etler (1952), Sonata for Alto Saxophone and Piano, Op.29 by Robert Muczynski (1970), Sonata for Clarinet and Piano by Leonard Bernstein (1941), and Quiet and Easy from Deep Ellum Nights by Simon Sargon (1991). Recordings can be accessed in the Digital Repository (DRUM) at the University of Maryland.
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    Telling the Whole Story: A Mixed Methods Process Evaluation of Middle School General Music Curriculum Reform
    (2023) Wright, Bri'Ann F; Prichard, Stephanie F; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    This study is a mixed methods process evaluation of a middle school music curriculum reform in a large, Mid-Atlantic school district. The purpose of this study was to explore East Highland Public School District’s (a pseudonym), reform and implementation process of their seventh and eighth grade general music curricula. I constructed an understanding of the nature of the curricular reform, including structural circumstances that led to the change, the writing process and pilot phase, and enactment across the district. Further, I sought to investigate teacher perceptions of agency and conceptions of their teaching alignment with the new curriculum documents. Research questions guiding the study addressed the nature of the EHPSD curriculum reform, enactment process, and teacher perceptions. I framed this study through the theory of ecological teacher agency, which views agency as action with intention and emergent within the unique structures surrounding the individual. Data sources included old and new curricular documents, interviews with the EHPSD music supervisor and several teachers who were central to the writing process, and a questionnaire—Music Teacher Professional Agency Survey (MTPAS)—administered to all middle school general music teachers in the district. I approached data analysis using a multifaceted approach informed by scholarly recommendations for mixed methods process evaluation. First, I completed a thorough document analysis of the new general music curriculum—General Music I and General Music II (GMI and GMII). Next, I conducted interviews with the EHPSD music supervisor and three of the main curriculum writers. Finally, the quantitative strand of the study, included administering and analyzing data from the MTPAS where I sought to understand teachers’ perceptions of agency and conceptions of their teaching alignment with the written curriculum. I then formulated a theory of action, based mostly from the interview data with the music supervisor, to “test” the efficacy of the implementation process and uncover the underlying assumptions inherent in the enactment process. I mixed my qualitative and quantitative data strands by creating a data convergence matrix. Results indicated that based on the theory of action, the reform of EHPSD’s new middle school general music curriculum was carried out with relative fidelity. Instigated by a board-approved visual arts schedule change and overseen by EHPSD’s music supervisor, the reform process included curriculum design and writing time, a pilot program, and full implementation for both GMI and GMII. Through document analysis and exploration of interview data, I identified that the contents and processes included in GMI and GMII reflected progressive middle school general music values and curricula design. Survey results indicated positive perceptions of teacher agency and positive conceptions of pedagogical alignment with the document. In mixed methods analysis, several themes overlapped between interviews and survey responses.Findings from this study point toward the need for localized reform efforts that leverage teachers as instigators of reform design and enactment, in both program design and also in program and policy evaluation. Additionally, process and full impact evaluation work is important to music education to uncover curricular instruction, content, and teaching strategies that work in the pk-12 and higher education music classrooms.
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    PANDEMICS IN PARALLEL: VIOLIN MUSIC DURING THE SPANISH INFLUENZA (WORLD WAR I) AND COVID 19
    (2022) Tursi, Erica; Salness, David; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    My dissertation incorporates in-depth research of composers (and their relevant compositions) living through parallel pandemics and political crises. These periods of time include: COVID-19 and international conflict, as well as The Spanish Flu and World War I. The pieces for violin alone were all created in 2020 as part of the Alone Together Project, launched by Jennifer Koh in response to COVID-19 and the financial hardship it placed on so many in the arts community. There are sixteen current composers which will be noted in the following pages. Composers and their works from the past include, Claude Debussy (Violin Sonata in G minor), Leos Janáček (Violin Sonata), Vaughan Williams (The Lark Ascending), and Igor Stravinsky (L’Histoire du Soldat score for clarinet, violin, and piano). My dissertation delves into each composer’s experiences, gaining awareness of how they cope with these difficult times, what inspires their compositions, and their productivity during these uncertain times. Three video recitals are included in my dissertation representing Program 1, Program 2 and Program 3 as described in detail in the written supporting materials.
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    DEPARTURE, CONFLICT, AND REBIRTH IN THE MUSICAL LANGUAGE OF FRANZ LISZT
    (2023) Chen, Tzu-yi; Haggh-Huglo, Barbara H; Gowen, Bradford; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    “Departure” is a starting point to examine how Franz Liszt responded to and expressed his life away from his homeland through the musical language of selected piano works. After his initial departure from Hungary, Liszt’s relocations, changes of occupation, and artistic vocations led to conflict and disillusionment and at the same time reawaken his creative craft and religious calling to God to which his emotional experiences and spiritual calling give witness. While the idea of departure in Liszt’s case often signifies a geographical separation, it also reflects the resulting inner conflict, which fundamentally shaped his choices of compositional tools that he used to express conformity or deviation from musical traditions. This study examines five spiritually influenced programmatic piano works dating from 1839 to 1877 in light of Liszt’s physical and musical departures and demonstrates how he infused an evolving selection of extramusical inspirations into his program music, forms, and harmonic language. It provides a timeline connecting the events of his life and his artistic development. The tension and conflict of his inner life and creativity, after many twists and turns, will be shown to have led to his reconciliation with his Catholic faith, but first led him to compose program music. Liszt encountered a variety of extramusical inspirations around the mid-1830s. His reading of literature, ranging from epic poems to poetry collections influenced him heavily. As a result, he began to conceptualize program music. All five examples discussed here drew inspiration from literary texts, but his symphonic poems were inspired by poetry and painting. After arriving in Weimar in 1848, he developed his program-music concept in his symphonic poems and in important published piano works including revisions of earlier piano works. He learned to be more selective in quoting from a program in his compositions—he typically included poetry to introduce musical scores or as inserted texts in musical scores—and in the mid-1850s, he further defined his thoughts on musical forms and programs in his essay of 1855, On Berlioz’s Harold in Italy. During his subsequent prolonged sojourn in Rome, the unexpected failure of his marriage plan and the loss of his two children brought heightened awareness of destiny and death. These tragic events led him to reduce the numbers of themes expressing different moods. That allowed him to delve into his quoted program more deeply, which he accomplished by experimenting freely with various harmonizations. In his programmatic works that were spiritually influenced, Liszt responded to the tension he felt between his Christian ideals and his worldly desires by the divine and the diabolical in his music, by including quoted literary texts in the score that inspired him, and by using harmonies based on different scales. His musical conception of the divine was inspired by the musical heritage of the Church, which he evoked with pentatonic and hexatonic (whole-tone) scales, Gregorian chant-inspired themes and melodies, and harmonizations based on the Church modes. In his spiritually inspired compositions, Liszt also favored F-sharp major, representing heaven, as his key of choice, and he balanced a selection of consonant or perfect intervals versus dissonant harmonies and diminished intervals based on his readings of spiritually inspired literature. In contrast, his diabolical side is manifested in tritones, diminished seventh chords, chromatic scales, unexpected modulations, and his “diabolical” themes, which were part of his programmatic plan and represented by thematic transformations. This study describes his nuanced compositional progress in his conception and application of new forms—a modified one-movement sonata form, a freely structured passacaglia theme and variation form embedding a recitative and answered by a chorale, a three- act dramatic form—and in his use of increasingly sophisticated compositional techniques. He transformed themes to advance the plot of the quoted poetry, composed melodies to ‘sing’ the syllables of an absent but musically implied and thus quoted text, and even deliberately placed the texts of a Lutheran chorale or from the Latin Bible within his musical scores to make his piano compositions resemble vocal or liturgical choral music. These observations show how Liszt’s physical departures from Hungary, Paris, Weimar, and Rome fundamentally stimulated his artistic growth, in that his resulting life as sinner and saint, and his inner spiritual conflicts awakened both his diabolical nature and his ultimate search for the divine. Liszt succeeded in representing his strongly felt inner departures with deeply informed imagination in his piano music. I performed these five compositions on February 16, 2021, in Gildenhorn Recital Hall at the University of Maryland. Both live and studio recordings of this performance can be found in the Digital Repository at the University of Maryland.
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    THE GENRE CHARACTER PIECES OF KAROL SZYMANOWSKI: A COMPLETE RECORDING
    (1981) Barroll, Rayna Sue Klatzkin; Gordon, Stewart; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    Karol Szymanowski (1882-1937) is a transitional figure whose work bridges late nineteenth-century romanticism and the twentieth-century movement away from tonality. The fifty-four genre character pieces, which are recorded on tape as the major portion of this study, delineate the evolution of his style: his origins in a highly chromatic nineteenth-century medium, influenced by Chopin and Skriabin; his flirtation with atonality; and finally, the realization of a personal twentieth-century style, affected by his exposure to the music of Debussy, Ravel, Stravinsky, and Skriabin, and also by his immersion in the indigenous folk-music of one of the regions of his country. The Nine Preludes, Opus 1, completed by the time he was eighteen, are intensely personal, finely wrought and quasi-improvisational in nature. Even in some of these early, passionate outcries, which show the specific imprint of Chopin and early Skriabin, however, there is an avoidance of the resolution of dissonance which definitely mark Szymanowski as a twentieth-century composer. There are prophetic suggestions, here and in the Opus 4 Etudes, of atonality and also of the bitonality that dominates much of his later music. The Twelve Etudes, Opus 33, written in 1916 , are already in a full-fledged twentieth-century idiom. The etudes, which are dissonant, usually bitonal, tending toward atonality, show Szymanowski's desire to cast off conventional tonality. He uses seconds and sevenths as predominant colors, pentatonic scales, extended passages of parallel chords, heavy reliance on the tritone, persistent dissonance, and occasional whole-tone scales. The twenty-two Mazurkas written between 1926 and 1935 reflect Szymanowski's involvement with the mountaineers in the Goral region of the High Tatra Mountains in Southern Poland and his enchantment with their culture and their music. Like Bartok, whom he respected and admired, and whose music these late works most immediately resemble, Szymanowski seems to have found his ultimate expression through the indigenous music of his own country. Szymanowski continues in his use of dissonance and bitonality, although the modal orientation of the folk melodies induces a strongly tonal feeling.
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    Black Gospel Music Styles, 1942-1975: Analysis and Implications for Music Education
    (1978) Baker, Barbara Wesley; Folstrom, Roger J.
    The purpose of this dissertation is to determine styles and style changes that have occurred in Black gospel music since 1942, and to document those changes with representative cassette recordings. Implications of those changes are presented for secondary music education and for prospective music teacher training. This study should provide a significant addition to the field of music, and to Black music, because of the creation of an analysis model that provides the framework for analysis of styles in Black gospel music. This study also provides access to another musical resource for use in the secondary school music classroom by linking the a nalysis of Black gospel to the practical, educative uses of Black gospel music.
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    EAST MEETS WEST: INFLUENTIAL ELEMENTS OF WESTERN PIANO MUSIC ON CHINESE PIANO MUSIC
    (2023) Lin, Yao; Dedova, Larissa; Music; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    ABSTRACTTitleofDissertation:EAST MEETS WEST: INFLUENTIAL ELEMENTS OF WESTERN PIANO MUSIC ON CHINESE PIANO MUSICYao Lin, Doctor of Musical Arts, 2023Dissertation directed by:Professor Larissa Dedova School of MusicThe inspiration for my doctoral dissertation came from my participation in UMD’s concerto competition, where I had the opportunity to perform and record both the Liszt Piano Concerto No. 1 and the Yellow River Piano Concerto during my DMA study. It was fascinating for me to observe how the Yellow River Concerto had been influenced by Western piano concertos.Piano compositions with national characteristics have long been cherished and adored by audiences and performers alike. Chinese composers have masterfully crafted piano music that exudes a distinct Chinese flavor by integrating folk tunes and emulating the timbre of folk instruments. These pieces convey the unique culture of Chinese music to audiences and musicians alike. Through the combination of traditional folk modes, rhythms, melodies, and musical forms, numerous exceptional piano works showcase the aesthetic national color and style. As a Chinese pianist who received my music education in China, Ukraine, and the USA, I am excited about the prospect of recording both Chinese and Western repertoire. I find it extremely intriguing to explore the influential elements of Western music on Chinese music, while identifying their similarities and differences. Although this will be a challenging endeavor, it is also highly rewarding, and I look forward to presenting my findings in this dissertation. For the purposes of my study, I have classified the music I have recorded into three categories: compositions inspired by scenery, compositions with themes related to children, and dance music with diverse folk elements and characteristics. The repertoire presented in this dissertation is included in a two-CD album that I recorded at the Dekelboum Concert Hall at the University of Maryland, College Park. These recordings will be available in the Digital Repository at the University of Maryland (DRUM) for all to enjoy