MACHINERY ANOMALY DETECTION UNDER INDETERMINATE OPERATING CONDITIONS
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Anomaly detection is a critical task in system health monitoring. Current practice of anomaly detection in machinery systems is still unsatisfactory. One issue is with the use of features. Some features are insensitive to the change of health, and some are redundant with each other. These insensitive and redundant features in the data mislead the detection. Another issue is from the influence of operating conditions, where a change in operating conditions can be mistakenly detected as an anomalous state of the system. Operating conditions are usually changing, and they may not be readily identified. They contribute to false positive detection either from non-predictive features driven by operating conditions, or from influencing predictive features. This dissertation contributes to the reduction of false detection by developing methods to select predictive features and use them to span a space for anomaly detection under indeterminate operating conditions.
Available feature selection methods fail to provide consistent results when some features are correlated. A method was developed in this dissertation to explore the correlation structure of features and group correlated features into the same clusters. A representative feature from each cluster is selected to form a non-correlated set of features, where an optimized subset of predictive features is selected. After feature selection, the influence of operating conditions through non-predictive variables are removed. To remove the influence on predictive features, a clustering-based anomaly detection method is developed. Observations are collected when the system is healthy, and these observations are grouped into clusters corresponding to the states of operating conditions with automatic estimation of clustering parameters. Anomalies are detected if the test data are not members of the clusters. Correct partitioning of clusters is an open challenge due to the lack of research on the clustering of the machinery health monitoring data. This dissertation uses unimodality of the data as a criterion for clustering validation, and a unimodality-based clustering method is developed.
Methods of this dissertation were evaluated by simulated data, benchmark data, experimental study and field data. These methods provide consistent results and outperform representatives of available methods. Although the focus of this dissertation is on the application of machinery systems, the methods developed in this dissertation can be adapted for other application scenarios for anomaly detection, feature selection, and clustering.