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Aerosols can affect the net radiation budget and global climate of the Earth either “directly” – through their radiative properties, or “indirectly” – through their cloud-forming abilities by acting as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). The interactions between aerosols and clouds are the most significant sources of uncertainty in the overall radiative forcing from due to a lack of understanding related to the droplet formation mechanism of aerosols. These uncertainties are majorly associated with the carbonaceous aerosols present in the atmosphere, notably due to their compositional diversity, vastly variable physicochemical properties, and unique water uptake characteristics. In this dissertation, new lab-based measurement techniques and computational methods have been developed to resolve the CCN activity and water uptake behavior of pure and mixed carbonaceous aerosol particles.The first part of this dissertation accomplishes two goals: 1. The development and application of a new CCN measurement method, and 2. The formulation of a new computational framework for CCN activity analysis of aerosols. The results in this dissertation demonstrate the significance of size-resolved morphology and dissolution properties of aerosol particles in improving their CCN activity analysis under varying ambient conditions. Furthermore, these results suggest that in the future, more comprehensive CCN analysis frameworks can be developed by explicitly treating other physical and chemical properties of the aerosols to further improve their CCN activity analysis. The second part of this dissertation focuses on large-scale analysis. The CCN analysis framework is implemented into a climate model to quantify the water uptake behavior of carbonaceous aerosols, and then study the subsequent variabilities associated with the physical and radiative properties of ambient aerosols and clouds. Statistical techniques are also developed in this work for chemical characterization of ambient aerosols. The characterization results show large regional compositional variations in ambient aerosol populations. These results also suggest that the knowledge of chemical species is necessary to quantify the water uptake properties of the aerosol population.