Augmented Deep Representations for Unconstrained Still/Video-based Face Recognition

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Face recognition is one of the active areas of research in computer vision and biometrics. Many approaches have been proposed in the literature that demonstrate impressive performance, especially those based on deep learning. However, unconstrained face recognition with large pose, illumination, occlusion and other variations is still an unsolved problem. Unconstrained video-based face recognition is even more challenging due to the large volume of data to be processed, lack of labeled training data and significant intra/inter-video variations on scene, blur, video quality, etc. Although Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) have provided discriminant representations for faces and achieved performance surpassing humans in controlled scenarios, modifications are necessary for face recognition in unconstrained conditions. In this dissertation, we propose several methods that improve unconstrained face recognition performance by augmenting the representation provided by the deep networks using correlation or contextual information in the data.

For unconstrained still face recognition, we present an encoding approach to combine the Fisher vector (FV) encoding and DCNN representations, which is called FV-DCNN. The feature maps from the last convolutional layer in the deep network are encoded by FV into a robust representation, which utilizes the correlation between facial parts within each face. A VLAD-based encoding method called VLAD-DCNN is also proposed as an extension. Extensive evaluations on three challenging face recognition datasets show that the proposed FV-DCNN and VLAD-DCNN perform comparable to or better than many state-of-the-art face verification methods.

For the more challenging video-based face recognition task, we first propose an automatic system and model the video-to-video similarity as subspace-to-subspace similarity, where the subspaces characterize the correlation between deep representations of faces in videos. In the system, a quality-aware subspace-to-subspace similarity is introduced, where subspaces are learned using quality-aware principal component analysis. Subspaces along with quality-aware exemplars of templates are used to produce the similarity scores between video pairs by a quality-aware principal angle-based subspace-to-subspace similarity metric. The method is evaluated on four video datasets. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

To utilize the temporal information in videos, a hybrid dictionary learning method is also proposed for video-based face recognition. The proposed unsupervised approach effectively models the temporal correlation between deep representations of video faces using dynamical dictionaries. A practical iterative optimization algorithm is introduced to learn the dynamical dictionary. Experiments on three video-based face recognition datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively learn robust and discriminative representation for videos and improve the face recognition performance.

Finally, to leverage contextual information in videos, we present the Uncertainty-Gated Graph (UGG) for unconstrained video-based face recognition. It utilizes contextual information between faces by conducting graph-based identity propagation between sample tracklets, where identity information are initialized by the deep representations of video faces. UGG explicitly models the uncertainty of the contextual connections between tracklets by adaptively updating the weights of the edge gates according to the identity distributions of the nodes during inference. UGG is a generic graphical model that can be applied at only inference time or with end-to-end training. We demonstrate the effectiveness of UGG with state-of-the-art results on the recently released challenging Cast Search in Movies and IARPA Janus Surveillance Video Benchmark datasets.