Nonlinear Analysis of Phase Retrieval and Deep Learning

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Nonlinearity causes information loss. The phase retrieval problem, or the phaseless reconstruction problem, seeks to reconstruct a signal from the magnitudes of linear measurements. With a more complicated design, convolutional neural networks use nonlinearity to extract useful features. We can model both problems in a frame-theoretic setting. With the existence of a noise, it is important to study the stability of the phaseless reconstruction and the feature extraction part of the convolutional neural networks. We prove the Lipschitz properties in both cases. In the phaseless reconstruction problem, we show that phase retrievability implies a bi-Lipschitz reconstruction map, which can be extended to the Euclidean space to accommodate noises while remaining to be stable. In the deep learning problem, we set up a general framework for the convolutional neural networks and provide an approach for computing the Lipschitz constants.