Spousal Violence and Contraceptive Use among Married Afghan Women in a Nationally Representative Sample

Thumbnail Image
Publication or External Link
Ibrahimi, Sahra
Steinberg, Julia R.
Ibrahimi, S.; Steinberg, J.R. Spousal Violence and Contraceptive Use among Married Afghan Women in a Nationally Representative Sample. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 9783.
Objective: Afghanistan is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of spousal violence (56%) and a low prevalence of contraceptive use (23%), yet there is no study assessing how spousal violence is related to contraceptive use, and what methods are most used by women. Therefore, this study examined the association between the number of types of spousal violence and contraceptive use. Method: Using data from 18,985 Afghan married women, aged 15 to 49, who responded to the 2015 Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey, the current contraceptive method was grouped into five categories: male-involved methods, pills, injectables, long-acting reversible contraception, female sterilization, and Lactation Amenorrhea Method. The number of types of spousal violence in the past 12 months was categorized as none, one type, or two or more types, based on women’s experiences with verbal, physical, and sexual violence. For analysis, binary and multinomial logistic regression were used. Results: After adjusting for the covariates, the experience of any spousal violence was associated with contraception use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.64–2.27, p = 0.0001). Among those using contraception, experiencing two or three types of spousal violence was associated with using pills (adjusted risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.63–2.77, p = 0.0001), injections (aRRR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26–2.41, p = 0.001), and LAM (aRRR = 3.27, 95% CI: 2.05–5.20, p = 0.0001), compared to male-involved methods. Conclusions: The findings of this study may inform policymakers and program implementers in designing interventions to address the pervasive problem of violence against women, and make pills and injectables more accessible to Afghan women, since these methods are under women’s control and more often used in Afghanistan.
Partial funding for Open Access provided by the UMD Libraries' Open Access Publishing Fund.