Family Science Research Works
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- ItemPadres Preparados, Jóvenes Saludables: intervention impact of a randomized controlled trial on Latino father and adolescent energy balance-related behaviors(Springer Nature, 2022-10-18) Baltaci, A.; Hurtado Choque, G. A.; Davey, C.; Reyes Peralta, A.; Alvarez de Davila, S.; Zhang, Y.; Gold, A.; Larson, N.; Reicks, M.Studies have shown associations among food and activity behaviors and body weight of Latino fathers and adolescents. However, few Latino father-focused interventions have been designed to improve energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) and weight status among early adolescents. Thus, this efficacy study aims to evaluate the Padres Preparados, Jóvenes Saludables (Padres) youth obesity prevention program for positive changes in EBRBs (fruit, vegetable, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), sweet/salty snack, and fast-food consumption, physical activity, and screen time) and weight status among low-income Latino fathers and adolescents (10-14 years). A two-arm (treatment versus delayed-treatment control group) randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of 8 weekly experiential learning sessions (2.5 hours each) based on social cognitive theory. The sessions included food preparation, parenting skills, nutrition, and physical activity. The program was delivered to father-adolescent dyads (mothers were encouraged to attend) in trusted community-based settings in a Midwest metropolitan area between 2017 and 2019. In March 2020, in-person implementation was discontinued due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, which limited the sample size. Father/adolescent dyads were randomized to treatment or control group within each site. Surveys and measurements were completed by fathers and adolescents to assess changes in food and activity behaviors from baseline to post-intervention. Adolescents also completed 24-hour dietary recall interviews at baseline and post-intervention. Intervention effects were assessed using linear regression mixed models adjusted for covariates and accounting for clustering of participants within sites. Data from 147 father/adolescent dyads who completed at least the baseline data collection were used. No significant differences were observed for baseline to post-intervention changes in adolescents’ and fathers’ EBRBs or weight status between treatment and control groups. Fathers’ SSB and fast food intakes were not statistically significant (p = 0.067 and p = 0.090, respectively). The Padres program resulted in no significant improvements in adolescent and father EBRBs and weight status. Additional Latino father-focused interventions are needed to examine intervention effects on EBRBs among Latino adolescents.
- ItemAgainst the Odds: A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Resilience Processes during Paternal Incarceration(MDPI, 2021-11-04) Morgan, Amy A.; Arditti, Joyce A.; Dennison, Susan; Frederiksen, SigneOn any given day, approximately 2.1 million children in Europe have an incarcerated parent. Although research indicates that material hardship is associated with parental incarceration, and particularly paternal incarceration, little is known about family processes that may mitigate the harmful effects of such hardship on children with an incarcerated parent. Guided by a resilience framework, this study examined how family processes mediate the effects of material hardship on youth academic adjustment within the context of paternal incarceration. Using Danish data that assessed key family constructs, structural equation modeling was used to perform a mediational within-group analysis of primary caregivers (n = 727) to children with an incarcerated father. Results indicate that although social support and parenting skills did not yield mediating effects, caregiver mental health strongly mediated the effects of material hardship on youth academic adjustment during paternal incarceration. Findings suggest that economic conditions, as well as caregiver mental health symptoms, are important areas of intervention that may promote family-level resilience for youth of an imprisoned father. We conclude with research and practice recommendations to advance our understanding of resilience among families with an incarcerated parent.
- ItemJoint effects of ethnic enclave residence and ambient volatile organic compounds exposure on risk of gestational diabetes mellitus among Asian/Pacific Islander women in the United States(Springer Nature, 2021-05-08) Williams, Andrew D.; Ha, Sandie; Shenassa, Edmond; Messer, Lynne C.; Kanner, Jenna; Mendola, PaulineAsian/Pacific Islander (API) communities in the United States often reside in metropolitan areas with distinct social and environmental attributes. Residence in an ethnic enclave, a socially distinct area, is associated with lower gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk, yet exposure to high levels of air pollution, including volatile organic compounds (VOCS), is associated with increased GDM risk. We examined the joint effects of ethnic enclaves and VOCs to better understand GDM risk among API women, the group with the highest prevalence of GDM. We examined 9069 API births in the Consortium on Safe Labor (19 hospitals, 2002–2008). API ethnic enclaves were defined as areas ≥66th percentile for percent API residents, dissimilarity (geographic dispersal of API and White residents), and isolation (degree that API individuals interact with another API individual). High levels of 14 volatile organic compounds (VOC) were defined as ≥75th percentile. Four joint categories were created for each VOC: Low VOC/Enclave (reference group), Low VOC/No Enclave, High VOC/Enclave, High VOC/No Enclave. GDM was reported in medical records. Hierarchical logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) between joint exposures and GDM, adjusted for maternal factors and area-level poverty. Risk was estimated for 3-months preconception and first trimester exposures. Enclave residence was associated with lower GDM risk regardless of VOC exposure. Preconception benzene exposure was associated with increased risk when women resided outside enclaves [High VOC/No Enclave (OR:3.45, 95%CI:1.77,6.72)], and the effect was somewhat mitigated within enclaves, [High VOC/Enclave (OR:2.07, 95%:1.09,3.94)]. Risks were similar for 12 of 14 VOCs during preconception and 10 of 14 during the first trimester. API residence in non-enclave areas is associated with higher GDM risk, regardless of VOC level. Ethnic enclave residence may mitigate effects of VOC exposure, perhaps due to lower stress levels. The potential benefit of ethnic enclaves warrants further study.
- ItemDifferences in reporting food insecurity and factors associated with differences among Latino fathers and mothers(Springer Nature, 2021-05-13) Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Druziako, Stephanie; Baltaci, Aysegul; Peralta Reyes, Alejandro Omar; Zhang, Youjie; Hurtado Choque, Ghaffar Ali; Reicks, MarlaFood security status has been assessed as a representative score for households; however, different members in the same household may perceive and report food insecurity differently. A high prevalence of food insecurity has been reported among Latino households, therefore understanding differences in reporting food insecurity by Latino father-mother dyads may improve accuracy of assessment and plans to address food insecurity. This study aimed to 1) determine demographic characteristics and/or food-related factors associated with perceptions of food security status among Latino father-mother dyads, and 2) identify factors associated with discordance in perceptions of food insecurity between dyads. Baseline data were used from a community-based, youth obesity prevention program among Latino families (n = 106 father-mother dyads). Food security was assessed with a 2-item food insecurity screen. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between reporting food security status and predictor variables for fathers, mothers, and dyad-discordant responses. Food insecurity was reported by 39% of fathers and 55% of mothers. Adjusted odds of reporting food insecurity were significantly higher for fathers perceiving their neighborhood was unsafe vs. safe (OR: 3.7, p < 0.05) and reporting lower vs. higher household income (OR: 3.2, p < 0.05). Adjusted odds of reporting food insecurity were significantly higher for mothers perceiving their neighborhood was unsafe vs. safe (OR: 4.1, p < 0.01) and reporting lower vs. higher home availability of fruit and vegetable (OR: 5.5, p < 0.01). Dyad discordance in reporting food security status occurred in 24% of the dyads. Adjusted odds of dyad discordant reports of food insecurity status were significantly higher for dyads reporting discordant responses regarding previous nutrition education (OR: 3.4, p < 0.05) and higher home fruit and vegetable accessibility (OR: 3.1, p < 0.05) compared to dyads reporting concordant responses. Among the 28 dyads who reported discordant nutrition education participation, 21 reported that fathers had never participated but mothers had participated more than once. Differential factors were associated with reporting food security among Latino father-mother dyads. Nutrition education for fathers that improves awareness of home food supplies and a better understanding of how food accessibility influences maternal perceptions may improve dyad discordance in reporting household food security.
- ItemThe context of violent disagreements between parents: a qualitative analysis from parents’ reports(Springer Nature, 2014-12-24) Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Mandal, Mahua; Epstein, Norman B; Werlinich, Carol A; Kerrigan, DeannaIntimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent public health problem that affects millions of families. Much of what is known about IPV comes from quantitative studies that often "count" acts of IPV without exploring in depth the circumstances surrounding the violence, thereby leaving critical questions unanswered; existing qualitative studies tend to focus solely on women’s perspectives. There is a dearth of dyadic qualitative research exploring the context of IPV in families with children, thus hindering the development of effective interventions for families experiencing IPV. Seven heterosexual couples were recruited from a University-based family therapy clinic to participate in qualitative interviews. Couples were eligible if they had experienced severe verbal or any physical aggression during the past 4 months; had ≥ one child living in the household; were English-speaking; and were ≥ 18. Each individual was interviewed separately. Key topics explored included specific types of violence used by men and women; primary triggers and the context surrounding aggressive disagreements; degree to which the child(ren) were exposed; and perceived consequences for adults and children. All couples listed household responsibilities and parenting as key IPV triggers. Couples with infants reported that parenting disagreements were particularly heated, with women using aggression due to frustration about their partners’ lack of support. Couples also described substance use, wanting to be heard, and prior violence histories as triggers or as the background context for IPV episodes. Children were present during IPV and often intervened in conflicts involving severe violence. Parents’ perceptions of the effects of IPV on their children ranged from minimal to major emotional distress, with men describing more significant impact than women. When describing acute triggers, parents most commonly mentioned that arguments were instigated by concerns about the division of household labor and parenting, a finding that may have significant implications for intervention development; this was particularly notable for parents of infants. Our findings emphasize the need for innovative programs that help parents cope with the stresses of raising a family as well as programs that directly address the consequences of IPV for children.
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