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- ItemAgainst the Odds: A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Resilience Processes during Paternal Incarceration(MDPI, 2021-11-04) Morgan, Amy A.; Arditti, Joyce A.; Dennison, Susan; Frederiksen, SigneOn any given day, approximately 2.1 million children in Europe have an incarcerated parent. Although research indicates that material hardship is associated with parental incarceration, and particularly paternal incarceration, little is known about family processes that may mitigate the harmful effects of such hardship on children with an incarcerated parent. Guided by a resilience framework, this study examined how family processes mediate the effects of material hardship on youth academic adjustment within the context of paternal incarceration. Using Danish data that assessed key family constructs, structural equation modeling was used to perform a mediational within-group analysis of primary caregivers (n = 727) to children with an incarcerated father. Results indicate that although social support and parenting skills did not yield mediating effects, caregiver mental health strongly mediated the effects of material hardship on youth academic adjustment during paternal incarceration. Findings suggest that economic conditions, as well as caregiver mental health symptoms, are important areas of intervention that may promote family-level resilience for youth of an imprisoned father. We conclude with research and practice recommendations to advance our understanding of resilience among families with an incarcerated parent.
- ItemSpousal Violence and Contraceptive Use among Married Afghan Women in a Nationally Representative Sample(MDPI, 2022-08-09) Ibrahimi, Sahra; Steinberg, Julia R.Objective: Afghanistan is one of the countries with the highest prevalence of spousal violence (56%) and a low prevalence of contraceptive use (23%), yet there is no study assessing how spousal violence is related to contraceptive use, and what methods are most used by women. Therefore, this study examined the association between the number of types of spousal violence and contraceptive use. Method: Using data from 18,985 Afghan married women, aged 15 to 49, who responded to the 2015 Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey, the current contraceptive method was grouped into five categories: male-involved methods, pills, injectables, long-acting reversible contraception, female sterilization, and Lactation Amenorrhea Method. The number of types of spousal violence in the past 12 months was categorized as none, one type, or two or more types, based on women’s experiences with verbal, physical, and sexual violence. For analysis, binary and multinomial logistic regression were used. Results: After adjusting for the covariates, the experience of any spousal violence was associated with contraception use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.64–2.27, p = 0.0001). Among those using contraception, experiencing two or three types of spousal violence was associated with using pills (adjusted risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.63–2.77, p = 0.0001), injections (aRRR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26–2.41, p = 0.001), and LAM (aRRR = 3.27, 95% CI: 2.05–5.20, p = 0.0001), compared to male-involved methods. Conclusions: The findings of this study may inform policymakers and program implementers in designing interventions to address the pervasive problem of violence against women, and make pills and injectables more accessible to Afghan women, since these methods are under women’s control and more often used in Afghanistan.
- ItemThe Development and Pilot Evaluation of a Family-Based Education to Strengthen Latinx Adolescent Mental Health in the United States: The Familias Activas Experience(MDPI, 2022-12-23) Hurtado Choque, Ghaffar Ali; Garcia Cosavalente, Hilda Patricia; Chan, Alexander E.; Rodriguez, Matthew R.; Sumano, EvaAdolescent years are a time of joy and can represent a challenge for parents and youth, especially for immigrants to the US who are adjusting to their host country. Programs focusing on family skills and positive youth development (PYD) can contribute to youth wellbeing especially, however, few exist for low-income immigrant families. (1) Background: The major goals of this project are to strengthen both PYD and healthy parenting practices by implementing an evidence-informed program, Familias Activas. A theory of change guided the development of Familias Activas in which three factors: parent training, positive youth development, and youth physical activity sessions (soccer) aimed to improve Latinx youth mental health. Youth participated in weekly soccer practices led by trained soccer coaches while parents/caregivers attended parent education. Both sessions lasted eight weeks. (2) Method: We describe the formative stage of the research project as well as the pilot implementation of the Familias Activas program, which provides critical insights for the development of a PYD program. (3) Results: Evaluation surveys were administered to youth and their parents. Thirty youths and sixteen parents completed the survey. The Kidscreen scale had a mean for most items ranging from 3.6 to 4.2. Participating youth were 11 years old and most affirmed they were Latinx. The feasibility program quality mean was 4.2 indicating an overall positive result for the pilot program.. Implications of PYD programs for Latinx youth are discussed. (4) Conclusions: The current paper presents a model for positively influencing the physical and mental wellbeing of Latinx youth and their parents. The model is culturally responsive in its involvement of both parents and youth in programming.
- ItemHousehold savings and present bias among Chinese couples: A household bargaining approach(Wiley, 2023-02-16) Chawla, Isha; Svec, JosephFamily savings is crucial to long-term wellbeing for all members in a household, particularly in a Chinese context where costs of living increasingly shift from government to individuals. Savings are typically examined as a balance of financial behaviors and spending preferences; however, this study highlights how savings in a family context is also a function of relationship status. Drawing on intra-household bargaining models, we analyze data from the 2014 China Family Panel Studies to examine the extent to which men's and women's relative power in the household explain variation in savings levels across families. Our findings indicate that women's greater bargaining positions (e.g., income and assets) correspond with greater savings for the family. However, such bargaining power constitutes a net negative for family savings when women have both greater relational power and higher spending preferences. We suggest that family savings can and should be understood as an outcome of dynamic bargaining conditions in addition to income factors.
- ItemThe role of doulas in respectful care for communities of color and Medicaid recipients(Wiley, 2022-06-02) Mallick, Lindsay M.; Thoma, Marie E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.Background Despite the tenets of rights-based, person-centered maternity care, racialized groups, low-income people, and people who receive Medicaid insurance in the United States experience mistreatment, discrimination, and disrespectful care more often than people with higher income or who identify as white. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the presence of a doula (a person who provides continuous support during childbirth) and respectful care during birth, especially for groups made vulnerable by systemic inequality. Methods We used data from 1977 women interviewed in the Listening to Mothers in California survey (2018). Respondents who reported high levels of decision making, support, and communication during childbirth were classified as having “high” respectful care. To examine associations between respectful care and self-reported doula support, we conducted multivariable logistic regressions. Interactions by race/ethnicity and private or Medi-Cal (Medicaid) insurance status were assessed. Results Overall, we found higher odds of respectful care among women supported by a doula than those without such support (odds ratios [OR]: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0–1.8). By race/ethnicity, the association was largest for non-Hispanic Black women (2.7 [1.1–6.7]) and Asian/Pacific Islander women (2.3 [0.9–5.6]). Doula support predicts higher odds of respectful care among women with Medi-Cal (1.8 [1.3–2.5]), but not private insurance. Conclusions Doula support was associated with high respectful care, particularly for low-income and certain racial/ethnic groups in California. Policies supporting the expansion of doulas for low-income and marginalized groups are consistent with the right to respectful care and may address disparities in maternal experiences.