Towards Single Shot Measurements of a Cooper Pair Box Qubit Using an RF Single Electron Transistor

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I report an investigation into using an rf Single Electron Transistor (rf-SET) to implement single shot readout of the quantum state of a Cooper pair box.

I fabricated Al/AlOx/Al SETs and Cooper pair boxes using e-beam lithography and double-angle evaporation. The devices had typical charging energies of about 1 K and were measured at 30 mK in a dilution refrigerator. I built rf-SETs with an LC resonant circuit integrated on the chip and operating frequencies of 650 MHz and 1.5 GHz. The rf-SETs had a typical bandwidth of 30 MHz and the best achieved charge sensitivity was 8X10-6 erms/(Hz)1/2 at 1.5 GHz.

The rf-SETs were used to measure the Coulomb staircase on the Cooper pair box. Measurements of the staircase show features due to quasiparticle poisoning that are dependent on temperature and SET bias. The data was compared to a theory I developed to extend existing theories of quasiparticle poisoning. My model is based on the calculation of tunneling rates to explain observations of parity effects in the Cooper pair box over a wide temperature range.

Quantum state control of the Cooper pair box was demonstrated by using fast voltage pulses applied to the gate. Temporal oscillations of charge states and spectroscopy measurements reveal a dephasing time T2=200 ps at 30 mK, for a drive frequency of 30 GHz. The energy relaxation time T1=140 ns was determined from time domain measurements of the decay of the Cooper pair box charge.

The fidelity of single shot measurements and the feasibility of this quantum readout scheme based on the results are discussed.