IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE OPTICAL PROPERTIES: DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY TECHNIQUES
Wang, Nam Sun
MetadataShow full item record
Cancer is a severe threat to human health. Early detection is considered the best way to increase the chance for survival. While the traditional cancer detection method, biopsy, is invasive, noninvasive optical diagnostic techniques are revolutionizing the way that cancer is diagnosed. Reflectance spectroscopy is one of these optical spectroscopy techniques showing promise as a diagnostic tool for pre-cancer detection. When a neoplasia occurs in tissue, morphologic and biochemical changes happen in the tissue, which in turn results in the change of optical properties and reflectance spectroscopy. Therefore, a pre-cancer can be detected by extracting optical properties from reflectance spectroscopy. This dissertation described the construction of a fiberoptic based reflectance system and the development of a series of modeling studies. This research is aimed at establishing an improved understanding of the optical properties of mucosal tissues by analyzing reflectance signals at different wavelengths. The ultimate goal is to reveal the potential of reflectance-based optical diagnosis of pre-cancer. The research is detailed in Chapter 3 through Chapter 5. Although related with each other, each chapter was designed to become a journal paper ultimately. In Chapter 3, a multi-wavelength, fiberoptic system was constructed, evaluated and implemented to determine internal tissue optical properties at ultraviolet A and visible wavelengths. A condensed Monte Carlo model was deployed to simulate light-tissue interaction and generate spatially distributed reflectance data. These data were used to train an inverse neural network model to extract tissue optical properties from reflectance. Optical properties of porcine mucosal and liver tissues were finally measured. In Chapter 4, the condensed Monte Carlo method was extended so that it can rapidly simulate reflectance from a single illumination-detection fiber thus enabling the calculation of large data sets. The model was implemented to study spectral reflectance changes due to breast cancer. The effect of adding an illumination-detection fiber to a linear array fiber for optical property determination was also evaluated. In Chapter 5, an investigation of extracting the optical properties from two-layer tissues was performed. The relationship between spatially-resolved reflectance distributions and optical properties in two-layer tissue was investigated. Based on all the aforementioned studies, spatially resolved reflectance system coupled with condensed Monte Carlo and neural network models was found to be objective and appear to be sensitive and accurate in quantitatively assessing optical property change of mucosal tissues.