Human Development & Quantitative Methodology Theses and Dissertations
Permanent URI for this collection
Now showing 1 - 5 of 296
- ItemAn Examination of the Effects of Three Testing Techniques on Word Accuracy, Comprehension, Rate, and Percentages of Semantic Substitutions in Oral Reading(1972) Stafford, Gerald Edward; Sullivan, Dorothy D.; Early Childhood Elementary Education; University of Maryland (College Park, Md); Digital Repository at the University of MarylandAuthoritative opinion of long standing has recommended that purposes for reading be established prior to reading. In spite of such recommendations, testing procedures for oral reading typically have not involved reading for purposes. Furthermore, research designed to examine the effectiveness of reading for purposes has generally produced divergent findings. Superior reading performance has been observed when purposes for reading were established prior to reading as well as when they were not established prior to reading. Moreover, research designed to examine the effectiveness of purposeful reading has been confined almost exclusively to the area of silent reading. To date not a single investigation has been found which clearly illustrated the effects of purposes for reading on oral reading performance. The present study was designed to investigate the relationships between three testing techniques and performance on four dimensions of oral reading performance. The three testing techniques employed in this study were identified as (1) careful reading, (2) reading for specific purposes, and (3) reading for general purposes. The four dimensions of oral reading performance on which comparisons were made involved oral reading word accuracy, comprehension, rate, and the percentages of semantic substitutions. The four research hypotheses examined in the investigation are stated as follows: 1. There is a difference in oral reading word accuracy under the treatments careful reading, reading for specific purposes, and reading for general purposes for third and sixth graders. 2. There is a difference in oral reading comprehension under the treatments careful reading, reading for specific purposes, and reading for general purposes for third and sixth graders. 3. There is a difference in oral reading rate under the treatments careful reading, reading for specific purposes, and reading for general purposes for third and sixth graders. 4. There is a difference in the percentages of semantic substitutions made under the treatments careful reading, reading for specific purposes and reading for general purposes for third and sixth graders. To obtain data for this study, forty-five third grade and forty-five sixth grade subjects were randomly selected from two elementary schools. The ninety subjects chosen for the study were then randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Each subject was requested to read orally in the manner dictated by the treatment group to which he had been assigned. The materials from which subjects read were the appropriate passages from Form A of the Gilmore Oral Reading Test (1852). Measurements for oral reading word accuracy, comprehension, rate, and percentages of semantic substitutions were computed for each subject. A 2x3 analysis of variance design was used to test for differential treatment effects. An analysis of the data from the study indicted that none of the research hypotheses was supported at the .05 level of significance. The present study led to recommendations in the areas of theory, diagnosis, teaching, and research. Authoritative opinion has suggested that many of the classification schemes used for analyzing oral reading errors are a theoretical. It is possible that performance differences not evidenced through the classification scheme employed in this study could be found using a classification scheme having a sounder theoretical basis. It was therefore recommended that the effects of the three treatments employed in this study be reexamined using a classification scheme built around a theory of reading. In contrast to investigation in the area of silent reading, the present study did not evidence differences in reading performance under the treatments employed. The failure of oral reading performance to vary in the manner observed for silent reading suggested that the two forms of reading are in some respects dissimilar. It was therefore recommended that that diagnostic procedures include measures of both oral and silent reading . Recent investigation has suggested that children often need greater skill in reading for different purposes. One possible explanation for why differential treatment effects were not obtained in the present study was that subjects did not have skill in reading for different purposes. The recommendation was made, therefore, that classroom teachers place greater. emphasis on teaching children to read for different purposes. The following recommendations were made for the area of research. (1) It was recommended that research be undertaken to develop measures of oral reading comprehension, rate, and percentages of semantic substitutions which have greater test-retest reliability. (2) The sample chosen for this study was restricted to third and sixth graders whose performance on a standardized silent reading test placed them in the second or third quartile of the normative population. A replication of this study using subjects from other grade and performance levels was recommended. (3) It was recommended that investigation be undertaken to further examine the relationships between oral and silent reading. Special consideration should be given to identifying those factors in which a satisfactory generalization from oral reading to silent reading can be made. (4) This study did not evidence differential treatment effects using reading materials and purposes for reading supplied by an examiner. It was recommended that investigation be undertaken to examine the effectiveness of using pupil-selected materials and pupil purposes for reading.
- ItemAn Analysis of Selected Topics in Christian Sex Education Curricula(1982) Dahlin, Marjorie B.; Gardner, Albert H.; Human Development Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)PROBLEM. This research identified content and methods used in 37 current Christian sex education resources to teach the topics of masturbation, contraception, homosexuality, abortion, and pre-marital sex. The analysis sought to ascertain the extent to which these topics were covered in the resources, if at all; the direction of stance taken by each resource toward each topic; the type(s) of authority cited in support of stance; the scriptural passages quoted in support of stance; the type of values education approach used, and characteristic themes comprising basic content in each of the five topics. PROCEDURE. Titles for the analysis were identified based on bibliographies by SIECUS and the National Council of Churches' Commission on Family Ministries and Human Sexuality, with a follow-up survey to check for possible omissions. The final sample consisted of materials produced by or for 1) the Commission's member groups and 2 ) the Roman Catholic Church. The investigator's judgments were subjected to tests of inter-judge reliability, resulting in overall levels of agreement of 76.0% to 94.1%. RESULTS. At least 4 of the 5 topics were covered in most (70.3%) of the resources. All of the materials discussed pre-marital sex; this topic exceeded the others in number of sentences of coverage by more than 4 times. The resources tended to be accepting of contraception by married couples (except for the Roman Catholic materials); divided on their stances toward masturbation; disapproving of premarital sex and homosexuality, and ambiguous toward abortion (again, except for the Roman Catholic materials). Scriptural references cited in support of stances derived primarily from the Old Testament and the writings of St. Paul. The type of values education approach used most frequently was "Inculcation." Almost half the resources contained information on contraceptives. CONCLUSIONS. Most of the resources contained discussion of most of the topics. Further research might explore the thoroughness and accuracy of this coverage. Recommendations are made for revision of the materials.
- ItemAn Application of Concepts from the Cobb Model to Female Coping with Mid-Life Events(1983) Lake, Geraldine Stirling; Hardy, Robert; Institute for Child Study/ Department of Human Development; University of Maryland (College Park, Md); Digital Repository at the University of MarylandThis study examined the relationship among social situation variables, selected personality variables, and how a woman in mid-life copes with a major life event. Specifically, this study considered relationships among Myers-Briggs Type Indicator continua, social support, choices and assessments a woman makes in coping with a life event. The subjects were 102 women, aged thirty-five to fifty-five, who had experienced a life event (e.g:, divorce, health problems, job loss, etc.) in the past three years. Subjects completed instruments on their background; personality (MBTI); type of events involved; responses to these events; quantity, quality, and types of social support used; and current life situation assessment. T Tests were computed using the Extraversion/Introversion MBTI continuum with quantity and quality of resources used. T Tests were also computed using subjects' scores on quality of resources with life assessment variables. Multiple Analysis of Variance was used to test new constructs developed from the Critical Response List with the MBTI Scales. Two specific hypotheses and three questions were studied. Hypothesis 1 stated that extraverts would report being helped by more people and helped more by people when compared to introverts. Differences between the two groups were not significant. The t Test on extraversion and quantity of help approached significance; the part of the hypothesis testing extraversion and quality of help was rejected. Hypothesis 2 stated that subjects having better quality of support would report better life situations than would subjects with poorer quality of support. While the difference between the two groups was not significant, the t Tests did approach significance. Other questions which tested for coping response differences between groups on the other three scales of the MBTI found no significant differences, indicating that the MBTI scales did not discriminate among the coping responses of the subjects. One sub-group, judging, rated their quality of emotional support received as much higher (.0046) than did perceivers. These results lend little support to the idea that there are significant relationships among MBTI continua, social support, and how a woman copes with a life event. The study did find that subjects mainly used family and friends for support while working though a life event and that over 90% of the women reported that emotional support was the most important kind of support.
- ItemFamily Child Care: Characteristics, Relationships, and Parent Outcomes(2022) Jimenez Parra, Laura Fernanda; Jones Harden, Brenda; Human Development; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Researchers employing qualitative methods consistently emphasize the close relationship between parents and providers as a unique feature of family child care (FCC) arrangements that is often missed in quality improvement initiatives (Ang et al., 2017; Hooper et al., 2019). Strong parent-provider relationships may be a critical conduit to support positive provider, parent, and child outcomes (Blasberg et al., 2019; Forry et al., 2012). However, little is known about how these constructs operate in FCC settings. I examined the association between FCC providers’ characteristics, the quality of the parent-provider relationship, and how these connections relate to parental involvement and well-being. My results revealed that FCC providers’ educational attainment and the pleasure they derived from their profession were positively associated with the quality of the relationship they formed with families in their programs. However, these relationships were not found to be related to FCC providers’ years of experience, feelings of burnout and stress, and professional development. Further, parents’ perceptions of this relationship were related to better parental mental health outcomes. Yet, there were mixed associations between parents’ perceptions of the parent-provider relationship and their engagement in their children’s education. Findings of this study highlight the need to understand the distinct aspects of quality in FCC settings. FCC offers unique features, such as closer parent-provider relationships, that need to be examined to successfully promote high-quality care in FCC homes and to inform the early childhood field about mechanisms that support positive outcomes in FCC providers and the families they serve.
- ItemSelf-Concept and Race: Basis for Reactions to a Short Story?(1976) Reggy, Mae Alice Turner; Secondary Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md)The purpose of this study was to assess the identification responses of black female tenth-grade readers in relationship to the reader's self-concept and the race -- black or white -- of the central character in an investigator-constructed short story. The problem under investigation centers around two major probes: 1. Do black female readers identify more with a white central character than with a black central character? 2. Do the self-concepts of black female readers influence their capacity to identify with a central character in a short story? The study has significance for the potential contribution it may make in helping teachers, librarians, curriculum supervisors and others understand the ways in which black female tenth-grade readers respond to characters in a particular short story and select written works accordingly. A sample of 24 black female tenth-graders in a creative arts high school in the D.C. Public Schools reacted to two versions of an investigator-constructed short story about the physical self-concept of a black (version A1) and white (version A2) central character. Divided into two groups (A, B), the subjects responded to version A1 or A2 using a questionnaire constructed by the investigator to measure the subjects' identification responses. Both groups were administered the Personal Orientation Inventory, a standardized test used to measure their self-concept. Data from these two instruments were analyzed using a standard t test and a Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient to test the following research hypotheses: H1 The mean score for Group A as measured by the Self-Involvement Questionnaire will be greater than the mean score for Group B. H2 There is a positive correlation between students' scores obtained on the Self-Involvement Questionnaire and scores obtained on the Personal Orientation Inventory. The findings of the study lead to the conclusions that, within the limitation and implementation procedures of the study, the self-concepts of black female readers have an effect upon their capacity to identify with the central character in a short story. Students with high self-concepts tended to identify with the central character in a short story regardless of the race of the central character and, conversely, that students with low self-concepts tended to reject the central character, black or white. The study also showed that black, tenth-grade female readers do not identify more with a black central character than with a white central character. The major implication for teaching is that teachers, librarians, curriculum supervisors and others need to consider the self-concepts of their students in selecting and assigning written works.