- ItemESSAYS ON INNOVATION, HUMAN CAPITAL, AND SMALL BUSINESSES(2023) Xue, Jing; Maksimovic, Vojislav; Yang, Liu; Business and Management: Finance; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This dissertation comprises three essays that explore how human and social capital influence innovation and promote firm dynamism, particularly for small businesses. It studies how firms' uptake of projects is shaped by the local environments, such as superstar firms, talent clusters, and local social capital. In the first essay, I study the labor channel underlying the agglomeration of innovation activity. It identifies the reallocation of human capital as a key channel of agglomeration spillovers for innovative firms. To measure agglomeration spillovers, I study how R&D labs in different local labor markets respond differently to scientific breakthroughs, which create large and unexpected shocks to innovation productivity in certain technology categories. I document four main findings. i), following scientific breakthroughs, affected labs in thicker local labor markets (i.e., commuting zones with more inventors innovating in a certain field) produce more patents and higher-quality patents, consistent with positive agglomeration spillovers. ii), the increase in patenting is mostly attributed to new hires rather than incumbent inventors. iii), the thick labor market effect is concentrated in states and industries where there is lower enforceability of non-compete agreements and labor is more mobile. iv), using textual analysis to identify lab-level exposure to scientific breakthroughs, I find that inventors are reallocated to labs that are more favorably affected by shocks, which helps labs in thicker labor markets to more easily bring in inventors working in the same niche fields and having a diverse knowledge base. Taken together, these results point to labor mobility as a key force in explaining why innovative firms cluster and suggest that the clustering of firms in thick labor markets can foster corporate innovation by facilitating the productivity-enhancing reallocation of human capital following scientific breakthroughs. In the second essay, I identify the entry effects of top innovative firms on incumbent innovation. I exploit the inter-temporal variation in patenting activities of local inventors in chosen commuting zones that attracted the firm headquarters and in runner-up commuting zones that were finalists of location choice. Treated and control groups have similar trends prior to the entry, while the local inventors in the chosen zones apply 6.7% more patents, gain 16.8% more top patents, and receive 11.6% more citations. Entry effects are stronger among local inventors who are technologically or socially closer to the entering firm, after controlling for innovation incentives and labor mobility. Social closeness, isolated from technological proximity, consistently explains the innovation gains, which suggests knowledge diffusion is the important channel for local innovation productivity spillovers. In the third essay, we investigate why small businesses exploit business opportunities better in some areas than others. In a sample of 1.2 million consumer-facing establishments, social capital predicts the uptake of risk-free loans controlling for close-by bank branches, income, and education. One standard deviation increase in the social capital metric accounts for 20 percent of the variation in uptake across zip codes, surpassing the impact of a bank branch within 1000 yards. Strong social capital benefits large, low-growth stores in less-dynamic areas, whereas bank branches benefit small, high-growth stores in more-dynamic areas. Virtual connections have the greatest effect on uptake in already advantaged locations.
- ItemEssays in Financial Economics(2022) Zhou, Wei; Kyle, Albert S; Business and Management: Finance; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This dissertation contains two essays in market microstructure and institutional asset management. The first essay studies a dynamic model of strategic trading where the parameters of temporary price impact (how price depends on a trader's current rate of trading) and permanent price impact (how price depends on the cumulative quantity traded over time) are endogenous and time-varying. A monopolistic informed speculator trades with oligopolistic uninformed speculators. They agree to disagree about the precision of the informed speculator's private Gaussian information flow. In the interval-trading Nash equilibrium with linear Markov strategies, trade starts if the disagreement is high enough and stops when the decaying alpha becomes insufficient to generate further trading benefits. Equilibrium permanent price impact parameters encapsulate the counteracting effects of descending residual uncertainty and diminishing trading opportunities. Equilibrium temporary price impact parameters capture traders' inter-temporal trade-offs between the benefits of learning and trading. The second essay was motivated by the observation that active institutional investors anticipate potential unwinding costs when accumulating positions. In this essay, I develop a dynamic model to study how strategic traders' accumulation and unwinding motives interact and evolve when facing a decaying profit opportunity. The unwinding pressures come from quadratic (regulatory) holding costs and price impacts of competitors' trades. The model shows that (i) with unwinding pressures, traders are reluctant to exploit persistent opportunities and profit most from those with an intermediate decaying rate; (ii) competition alleviates the unwinding pressure from holding costs but strengthens that from competitors' price impacts; and (iii) with increased regulatory costs, traders' most profitable opportunities shift to more transient ones.
- ItemEssays on Mutual Fund Performance Evaluation and Investors' Capital Allocations(2022) Cao, Bingkuan; Wermers, Russ; Business and Management: Finance; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The dissertation contains two chapters that studies the performance of mutual funds and investors' capital allocations. In the first chapter, I study mutual funds' portfolio management and investors' capital allocations in a unified framework under mandatory portfolio disclosure. By modeling fund managers and investors simultaneously, I show that more skill managers produce better performance by trading more actively, which causes investors to care about both fund performance and activeness when evaluating fund managers. This investor's behavior explains the convex flow-performance relation observed in the market. In addition, my model demonstrates that portfolio holdings information is more useful to investors than fund returns because portfolio holdings reveal manager activeness that is not fully captured by fund returns. My model offers three novel empirical predictions for which I find consistent evidence in the data. First, investor flows respond to both fund performance and activeness. Second, investor flows are more sensitive to the performance of illiquid holdings in the portfolio. Finally, in a diff-in-diff analysis, I show that investor flows become more sensitive to fund activeness when portfolios are disclosed more frequently. In the second chapter, I study the performance attribution of bond mutual funds. I build a comprehensive sample of U.S. actively managed bond mutual funds with a large cross section and long time series, and examine the characteristics of funds that are most associated with superior active bond fund performance. I construct several sets of covariates to measure different aspects of managerial ability, including risk management, credit analysis, activeness, beta timing, liquidity provision, and family synergy. Given the large set of covariates, I employ machine learning methods such as Boosted Regression Trees to select the best predictors of bond fund performance. Unlike equity funds, I find that risk management plays an important role in generating superior performance. In addition, funds that are better at credit analysis and charge lower fees outperform their peers.
- ItemTriptych in Empirical Finance(2022) Delalay, Sylvain; Maksimovic, Vojislav; Santosh, Shrihari; Business and Management: Finance; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This dissertation contains three chapters that explore topics in empirical finance and political economy. In Chapter 1, I study how the fundraising revenues of political campaigns affect the outcome of U.S. elections. First, I assemble a novel and granular dataset that provides a comprehensive picture of cash flows and voting intentions during U.S. congressional races. Then, I extract weekly shocks to the fundraising revenues of campaigns by using machine learning on the dataset. I find that the effect of revenues on the vote share decreases over the course of general elections. In races involving an incumbent, an additional $100,000 in challenger revenues increases her vote share by 1.48pp in the first half of the general election, but has no effect in the second half. Early cash infusions are more valuable than late cash infusions because they provide flexibility to respond to the opponent’s actions and mitigate current and future financing constraints. In Chapter 2, I examine how strategic and financial considerations shape the spending behavior of political campaign committees. To discipline the empirical analysis, I derive a dynamic model of strategic investment under financing constraints. I test the predictions of the model using the revenue shocks constructed in Chapter 1. I find that a committee’s elasticity of advertising expenditures to the revenue shocks of its opponent is 8%, which is a third of a committee’s elasticity to its own shocks. Moreover, a committee that is relatively richer than its opponent reacts more aggressively to its opponent’s shocks, both in levels and as a fraction of cash reserves. This result suggests that the availability of internal financing can amplify the competitive aspect of political spending in electoral races. In Chapter 3, I identify investor overreaction in a setting where information flows are not observable and learning pertains to multiple dimensions of an asset. Specifically, I measure how investors react to the information released during merger attempts and whether they form rational beliefs about the probability of deal completion. Using a model of distorted learning that generates testable implications, I find evidence of relative mispricing in the cross-section of merger targets. Empirically, a low price-implied probability of success underestimates the actual probability of success, and vice versa, suggesting that investors overreact to deal-specific information. The overreaction is unrelated to the unconditional merger premium and not driven by exposure to traditional risk factors.
- ItemEssays on Financial Markets(2022) Peppe, Matthew David; Kyle, Albert S; Business and Management: Finance; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This dissertation contains three essays on financial markets concerning the relationship between short interest and returns in over-the-counter (OTC) equities, the effect of obtaining a rating on municipal bond offering yields, and the use of alternative trading systems (ATS) in the corporate bond market.Chapter 1 studies short positions among over-the-counter domestic common stocks. Short selling plays an important role in maintaining price efficiency, but short-selling in over-the-counter equities is often perceived as extremely rare. Short selling constraints are indeed high in this market, with the median fee to borrow a security being 2% for stocks with no short interest and 10% for stocks with short interest exceeding 1% of shares outstanding. Despite these constraints, 27% of domestic OTC equities have outstanding short interest positions on a given reporting date. Consistent with theories of short selling constraints such as Miller (1977), these high short selling constraints imply a substantial negative relationship between short interest and future returns. A portfolio of securities with short interest exceeding 1% of shares underperforms a portfolio of securities with no short interest by 31% annually and panel regressions show the relationship is robust to accounting for other security characteristics. The negative relationship between short interest and future returns suggests short sellers are trading in the direction of correcting mispricing in the OTC market, but the large magnitude and long time horizon over which short positions outperform suggests that there are large potential price efficiency gains from reducing constraints on short selling. Chapter 2, joint work with Haluk Unal, studies how whether a municipal bond is rated affects its offering yield. Approximately 34% of local municipal bond issues were issued without ratings during 1998 to 2017. We study the circumstances that affect the decision to obtain a rating and whether unrated bonds, controlling for observable risk factors, are more expensive to issue than rated bonds. Results show that issuers are less likely to obtain ratings for smaller issues, negotiated offerings, and bonds with high proxies for risk such as coming from areas with low personal income. We estimate the effect of forgoing a rating on offering yields using a doubly-robust Inverse Probability Weighted Regression Adjustment that controls for confounding that arises from risk and other characteristics affecting both the choice to obtain a rating and the yield. We separately analyze revenue bonds, general obligation bonds, bank qualified, and non-bank qualified bonds and find ratings decrease offering yields by 47, 49, 60, and 42 basis points respectively. The higher offering yields cost municipalities $22.5B in higher interest expense during our sample period. We find the choice of issuers to forgo ratings despite the substantial potential savings appears to be influenced by the underwriters they work with. Underwriters may face a conflict of interest where not obtaining a rating lowers the price investors are willing to pay from the bond, but also lowers the price the underwriter must pay the issuer and thus increases the underwriter’s profit. Chapter 3 is joint work with Matthew Kozora, Bruce Mizrach, Or Shachar, and Jonathan Sokobin. This chapter studies the circumstances when corporate bonds trade via an electronic ATS rather than in the traditional phone market and the relationship between venue choice and transaction costs. Trades on ATS platforms are smaller and more likely to involve investment-grade bonds, suggesting market participants trade via ATS when concerns about information leakage and adverse selection are lower. Trades on ATS platforms are more probable for older, less actively traded bonds from smaller issues, indicating participants are more likely to trade via ATS when search costs are high. Moreover, dealer participation on ATS platforms is associated with lower customer transaction costs of between 24 and 32 basis points.