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Trends in neonicotinoid pesticide residues in food and water in the United States, 1999–2015

dc.contributor.authorCraddock, Hillary A.
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Dina
dc.contributor.authorTurner, Paul C.
dc.contributor.authorQuirós-Alcalá, Lesliam
dc.contributor.authorPayne-Sturges, Devon C.
dc.identifier.citationCraddock, H.A., Huang, D., Turner, P.C. et al. Trends in neonicotinoid pesticide residues in food and water in the United States, 1999–2015. Environ Health 18, 7 (2019).en_US
dc.description.abstractNeonicotinoids are a class of systemic insecticides widely used on food crops globally. These pesticides may be found in “off-target” food items and persist in the environment. Despite the potential for extensive human exposure, there are limited studies regarding the prevalence of neonicotinoid residues in foods sold and consumed in the United States. Residue data for seven neonicotinoid pesticides collected between 1999 and 2015 by the US Department of Agriculture’s Pesticide Data Program (PDP) were collated and summarized by year across various food commodities, including fruit, vegetable, meat, dairy, grain, honey, and baby food, as well as water to qualitatively describe and examine trends in contamination frequency and residue concentrations. The highest detection frequencies (DFs) for neonicotinoids by year on all commodities were generally below 20%. Average DFs over the entire study period, 1999–2015, for domestic and imported commodities were similar at 4.5%. For all the samples (both domestic and imported) imidacloprid was the neonicotinoid with the highest overall detection frequency at 12.0%. However, higher DFs were observed for specific food commodity-neonicotinoid combinations such as: cherries (45.9%), apples (29.5%), pears (24.1%) and strawberries (21.3%) for acetamiprid; and cauliflower (57.5%), celery (20.9%), cherries (26.3%), cilantro (30.6%), grapes (28.9%), collard greens (24.9%), kale (31.4%), lettuce (45.6%), potatoes (31.2%) and spinach (38.7%) for imidacloprid. Neonicotinoids were also detected in organic commodities, (DF < 6%). Individual commodities with at least 5% of samples testing positive for two or more neonicotinoids included apples, celery, and cherries. Generally, neonicotinoid residues on food commodities did not exceed US Environmental Protection Agency tolerance levels. Increases in detection trends for both finished and untreated water samples for imidacloprid were observed from 2004 to 2011.en_US
dc.publisherSpringer Natureen_US
dc.titleTrends in neonicotinoid pesticide residues in food and water in the United States, 1999–2015en_US
dc.relation.isAvailableAtEpidemiology & Biostatistics
dc.relation.isAvailableAtSchool of Public Health
dc.relation.isAvailableAtDigital Repository at the University of Maryland (DRUM)
dc.relation.isAvailableAtUniversity of Maryland (College Park, MD)

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