- ItemCensus Tract Food Tweets and Chronic Disease Outcomes in the U.S., 2015–2018(MDPI, 2019-03-18) Huang, Yuru; Huang, Dina; Nguyen, Quynh C.There is a growing recognition of social media data as being useful for understanding local area patterns. In this study, we sought to utilize geotagged tweets—specifically, the frequency and type of food mentions—to understand the neighborhood food environment and the social modeling of food behavior. Additionally, we examined associations between aggregated food-related tweet characteristics and prevalent chronic health outcomes at the census tract level. We used a Twitter streaming application programming interface (API) to continuously collect ~1% random sample of public tweets in the United States. A total of 4,785,104 geotagged food tweets from 71,844 census tracts were collected from April 2015 to May 2018. We obtained census tract chronic disease outcomes from the CDC 500 Cities Project. We investigated associations between Twitter-derived food variables and chronic outcomes (obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure) using the median regression. Census tracts with higher average calories per tweet, less frequent healthy food mentions, and a higher percentage of food tweets about fast food had higher obesity and hypertension prevalence. Twitter-derived food variables were not predictive of diabetes prevalence. Food-related tweets can be leveraged to help characterize the neighborhood social and food environment, which in turn are linked with community levels of obesity and hypertension.
- ItemGoogle Street View Derived Built Environment Indicators and Associations with State-Level Obesity, Physical Activity, and Chronic Disease Mortality in the United States(MDPI, 2020-05-22) Phan, Lynn; Yu, Weijun; Keralis, Jessica M.; Mukhija, Krishay; Dwivedi, Pallavi; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Javanmardi, Mehran; Tasdizen, Tolga; Nguyen, Quynh C.Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a high possibility that the presence of certain built environment characteristics can influence health outcomes, especially those related to obesity and physical activity. We examined the associations between select neighborhood built environment indicators (crosswalks, non-single family home buildings, single-lane roads, and visible wires), and health outcomes, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality, at the state level. We utilized 31,247,167 images collected from Google Street View to create indicators for neighborhood built environment characteristics using deep learning techniques. Adjusted linear regression models were used to estimate the associations between aggregated built environment indicators and state-level health outcomes. Our results indicated that the presence of a crosswalk was associated with reductions in obesity and premature mortality. Visible wires were associated with increased obesity, decreased physical activity, and increases in premature mortality, diabetes mortality, and cardiovascular mortality (however, these results were not significant). Non-single family homes were associated with decreased diabetes and premature mortality, as well as increased physical activity and park and recreational access. Single-lane roads were associated with increased obesity and decreased park access. The findings of our study demonstrated that built environment features may be associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes.
- ItemUsing 164 Million Google Street View Images to Derive Built Environment Predictors of COVID-19 Cases(MDPI, 2020-09-01) Nguyen, Quynh C.; Huang, Yuru; Kumar, Abhinav; Duan, Haoshu; Keralis, Jessica M.; Dwivedi, Pallavi; Meng, Hsien-Wen; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Jay, Jonathan; Javanmardi, Mehran; Tasdizen, TolgaThe spread of COVID-19 is not evenly distributed. Neighborhood environments may structure risks and resources that produce COVID-19 disparities. Neighborhood built environments that allow greater flow of people into an area or impede social distancing practices may increase residents’ risk for contracting the virus. We leveraged Google Street View (GSV) images and computer vision to detect built environment features (presence of a crosswalk, non-single family home, single-lane roads, dilapidated building and visible wires). We utilized Poisson regression models to determine associations of built environment characteristics with COVID-19 cases. Indicators of mixed land use (non-single family home), walkability (sidewalks), and physical disorder (dilapidated buildings and visible wires) were connected with higher COVID-19 cases. Indicators of lower urban development (single lane roads and green streets) were connected with fewer COVID-19 cases. Percent black and percent with less than a high school education were associated with more COVID-19 cases. Our findings suggest that built environment characteristics can help characterize community-level COVID-19 risk. Sociodemographic disparities also highlight differential COVID-19 risk across groups of people. Computer vision and big data image sources make national studies of built environment effects on COVID-19 risk possible, to inform local area decision-making.
- ItemRacial and Sex Differences between Urinary Phthalates and Metabolic Syndrome among U.S. Adults: NHANES 2005–2014(MDPI, 2021-06-26) Ghosh, Rajrupa; Haque, Mefruz; Turner, Paul C.; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Dallal, Cher M.Phthalates, plasticizers ubiquitous in household and personal care products, have been associated with metabolic disturbances. Despite the noted racial differences in phthalate exposure and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), it remains unclear whether associations between phthalate metabolites and MetS vary by race and sex. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 10,017 adults from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2005–2014). Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the association between 11 urinary phthalate metabolites and MetS using weighted sex and race stratified multivariable logistic regression. Higher MCOP levels were significantly associated with increased odds of MetS among women but not men, and only remained significant among White women (POR Q4 vs. Q1 = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.29; p-trend = 0.001). Similarly, the inverse association observed with MEHP among women, persisted among White women only (POR Q4 vs. Q1 = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.80; p-trend = 0.003). However, ΣDEHP metabolites were associated with increased odds of MetS only among men, and this finding was limited to White men (POR Q4 vs. Q1 = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.35; p-trend = 0.06). Among Black men, an inverse association was observed with higher MEP levels (POR Q4 vs. Q1 = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.77; p-trend = 0.01). The findings suggest differential associations between phthalate metabolites and MetS by sex and race/ethnicity.
- ItemGoogle Street View-Derived Neighborhood Characteristics in California Associated with Coronary Heart Disease, Hypertension, Diabetes(MDPI, 2021-10-03) Nguyen, Thu T.; Nguyen, Quynh C.; Rubinsky, Anna D.; Tasdizen, Tolga; Deligani, Amir Hossein Nazem; Dwivedi, Pallavi; Whitaker, Ross; Fields, Jessica D.; DeRouen, Mindy C.; Mane, Heran; Lyles, Courtney R.; Brunisholz, Kim D.; Bibbins-Domingo, KirstenCharacteristics of the neighborhood built environment influence health and health behavior. Google Street View (GSV) images may facilitate measures of the neighborhood environment that are meaningful, practical, and adaptable to any geographic boundary. We used GSV images and computer vision to characterize neighborhood environments (green streets, visible utility wires, and dilapidated buildings) and examined cross-sectional associations with chronic health outcomes among patients from the University of California, San Francisco Health system with outpatient visits from 2015 to 2017. Logistic regression models were adjusted for patient age, sex, marital status, race/ethnicity, insurance status, English as preferred language, assignment of a primary care provider, and neighborhood socioeconomic status of the census tract in which the patient resided. Among 214,163 patients residing in California, those living in communities in the highest tertile of green streets had 16–29% lower prevalence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetes compared to those living in communities in the lowest tertile. Conversely, a higher presence of visible utility wires overhead was associated with 10–26% more coronary artery disease and hypertension, and a higher presence of dilapidated buildings was associated with 12–20% greater prevalence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetes. GSV images and computer vision models can be used to understand contextual factors influencing patient health outcomes and inform structural and place-based interventions to promote population health.