Exploring the Lives of Asian American Men: Racial Identity, Male Role Norms, Gender Role Conflict, and Prejudicial Attitudes
Liu, William Ming
Pope-Davis, Donald B.
MetadataShow full item record
Much of the literature on masculinity has focused on the lives of White men. The literature assumed that White male experiences were ubiquitous for all men. Although some literature has begun to explore the lives of men of color, no empirical studies could be found that investigated the experiences of Asian American men from a racial identity perspective. Using racial identity to examine the lives of Asian American men was important since Asian American men, historically and contemporarily, encounter racism, yet no studies could be found that examined racism specifically among Asian American men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between racial identity, male role norms, gender role conflict, and prejudicial attitudes. 323 Asian American men were surveyed from public, private, and community colleges on the East and West coast. Participants were given the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale (POCRIAS, Helms, 1995), Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS, O'Neil et al., 1986), Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI, Levant et al., 1992), Quick Discrimination Index (QDI, Ponterotto et al., 1995), and a demographic form. Results from correlations show small relationships between Conformity, Internalization, and prejudicial attitudes. Similarly, relationships between GRCS and MRNI subscale and total scores show some small to modest relationships. A two-way ANOVA showed differences in prejudicial attitudes between those who had never taken a multicultural education course and those who had taken two or more courses. Finally, two hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted. In the first regression, the GRCS total score was the criterion and the predictors were POCRIAS subscales and prejudicial attitudes. Dissonance, Immersion/Resistance, and Internalization subscales were significant predictors. In the second regression, the MRNI Traditional Masculine Attitude score was the criterion and POCRIAS and prejudicial attitudes were predictors. Immersion/Resistance, Internalization, and prejudicial attitudes were significant predictors. Because the variance accounted for in the correlations and regressions were small, results suggest that potentially, other variables such as Asian cultural values and age may be playing a role in the experiences of Asian American men. The strengths and limitations, counseling implications, and recommendations for future research are also presented.