Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education Theses and Dissertations

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    The Influence of Behavior Rehearsal Techniques on Children's Communicative Behaviors
    (1973) Cassidy, Edward W.; Rhoads, David; Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of behavior rehearsal techniques on the behavior of shy children as determined by a measure of verbal behavior. Answers were sought to the following questions: 1. Does participation in a behavior rehearsal program affect the verbal behavior of shy children? 2. Is there a difference between standard and personal hierarchies used in behavior rehearsal? 3. Is there a difference between group and individual behavior rehearsal approaches? The sample included one hundred seventy-seven elementary school children from nineteen fourth, fifth, and sixth grade classrooms. The subjects were pupils who had a history of low frequency of verbal participation in group and individual settings. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two principal treatments or a control group. The first treatment was identified as Behavior Rehearsal-Personal. In this treatment subjects developed their own personal anxiety hierarchy. The second principal treatment was identified as Behavior Rehearsal-Standard. In this treatment the subjects were assigned to rehearse items from a hierarchy developed by the experimenter. The two treatments were applied in both one-to-one and group counseling settings. Besides treatment and setting, sex of subject and counselor were used as classification variables and included in a 2^4 factorial analysis of variance design. At the conclusion of a four week treatment period the subjects were observed on the criterion behavior, unsolicited communicative response, during a thirty minute controlled discussion session. Analysis of the data demonstrated that there was no change in verbal behavior as a result of participating in a behavior rehearsal program. It appears that in this study the behavior rehearsal procedures had no differential effect on the verbal behavior of the shy children. No significant difference was found on any of the other factors which· were measured. Neither the treatment setting, nor the sex of the subject, nor the counselor appeared to have a significant effect on the final results of the study. Although research studies indicate that the behavior rehearsal technique should be an effective technique for shaping assertive behaviors, no such evidence was found in this study. Nor was support found for the traditional view that personalized hierarchies are more effective than standard hierarchies. The lack of research on the behavior rehearsal technique suggests that more intensive and systematic research is needed to assess the specific effects behavior rehearsal has on the behavior of shy children.
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    Development and Preliminary Validation of the Religious Identity Development Scale
    (2002) Veerasamy, Suthkaran; Hoffman, Mary Ann; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure of religious identity development, the Religious Identity Development Scale (RIDS). The study also explored the relationship among religious identity development, anxiety and dogmatism to determine convergent and discriminant validity for the RIDS. The concurrent validity for the RIDS was determined by exploring the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientations. The religious identity measure that was validated in this study was based on a proposed model of religious identity development, the Experiential/Rational Model of Religious Identity Development. The participants for the study were 211 students and adults from the Midwest and East coast. They completed the Religious Identity Development Scale (RIDS; V. Suthakaran, 2002), the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale (Rokeach, 1960), the State subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Scale (Spielberger, 1983), Age Universal Intrinsic-Extrinsic Scale (Gorsuch & Venable, 1983), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1960). Exploratory factor analysis supported a six-factor model better than a seven-factor model. Discriminant validity was demonstrated by the negative correlations of the Acceptance status with anxiety and dogmatism, and the negative correlation of the Cognitive-Rationalization status with anxiety. Convergent validity was demonstrated by the positive correlations of the Concrete, Relational and Cognitive - Rationalization statuses with dogmatism, and the positive correlation of the Confusion status with anxiety. Some evidence, albeit modest, was found for concurrent validity, in that the Relational status was positively correlated with extrinsic religious orientation, and the Exploration status was positively correlated with intrinsic religious orientation. The negative correlation of the Cognitive-Rationalization status and the Confusion status with intrinsic religious orientation also provided tentative evidence for concurrent validity. Additional preliminary support for the concurrent validity of the RIDS was provided by examining the relationship of the six statuses with a two-dimensional definition of intrinsic and extrinsic religious orientation. Finally, results appeared to indicate that the internal consistencies and test-retest reliabilities were adequate, except for the Relational status. The methodological limitations of the study and implications for counseling psychology were discussed. Suggestions for future research for refinement of methodology were offered.
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    “SCREAMING DOWN THE HALLWAY”, BUT NO ONE IS LISTENING TO ME: EXPLORING THE LIVED EXPERIENCES OF BLACK RESIDENTIAL STUDENT AFFAIRS PROFESSIONALS REGARDING OCCUPATIONAL WELLNESS AT HISTORICALLY WHITE INSTITUTIONS
    (2023) Dissassa, Di-Tu; Moore, Candace M; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Amid ongoing occurrences of racism in the United States, consideration of the campus climate for Staff of Color remains under explored in literature. Specifically, Black student affairs employees who both live and work on campus are an understudied population regarding how race intersects with their residential life roles and how their wellness is impacted through these intersections. Through this study’s use of critical frameworks, the coresearchers and I sought to uncover their lived experiences through interviews, reflections, and focus groups. Four themes emerged from the findings of this research: (a) The Live-In Experience as Socialized and Conventional, (b) Belonging as Dualism, (c) Physical Safety as an Impediment to Occupational Wellness, and (d) Performativity as Racism. The coresearchers articulated that they were socialized into their experiences, yet (a) felt little belonging on campus due to their race and (b) felt a misfit when living in residence halls. Although the sense of belonging findings were consistent with existing campus climate research, articulated aspects of physical safety-related occupational health theories regarding occupational wellness suggested the coresearchers felt occupational distress surrounding their physical safety. The coresearchers also highlighted clearly that they experienced high levels of performative antiracism efforts from their departments and institutions, leading to feelings of isolation. Despite these challenges, the coresearchers described finding solace in community with other Black people and People of Color to provide aspects of wellness their institutions could not provide. Further research is needed to truly understand the implications of departmental and institutional leadership around performativity and lack of belonging for Staff of Color.
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    The Role of Effortful Control in Moderating the Relationship Between Temperamental Shyness, Fearfulness, and Internalizing Behaviors
    (2023) Zheng, Shanyun G; Teglasi, Hedwig; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Internalizing behaviors, such as anxiety and depression, have frequently been associated with temperament characteristics, specifically Behavioral Inhibition (BI) traits, such as Shyness and Fearfulness. While Effortful Control (EC) has been posited as a potential moderator in the relationship between heightened negative emotionality and Internalizing problems, empirical evidence precisely about BI remains inconclusive. This cross-sectional study investigated the role of Effortful Control and its sub-constructs (Attentional Focusing, Inhibitory Control, Low-intensity Pleasure, and Perceptual Sensitivity) in moderating the relation between Behavioral Inhibition (fear and shyness) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 130 kindergarteners. The findings indicated that Behavioral Inhibition was significantly correlated with and predicted internalizing behaviors. However, no significant correlations were found between Effortful Control, its sub-constructs, and internalizing behaviors in this sample. Additionally, Effortful Control and its sub-constructs did not moderate the relationship between Behavioral Inhibition and internalizing behaviors.
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    The Effect of a Structured Group Experience on the Transition from the Role of College Student to the Role of Working Professional
    (1980-04-23) Lyons, John C.; Schlossberg, Nancy K.; Counseling, Higher Education, and Public Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, MD)
    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a structured group experience on the transition of new college graduates from the role of student to worker. Fifty-seven subjects,who were employed in their first professional job upon graduating from college,were formed into an experimental group of twenty-nine and control group of twenty-eight subjects . A needs assessment identified ten behaviors which supervisors considered to be indications that a new employee was functioning as a worker rather than a learner. A twenty-two item questionnaire was developed which allowed supervisors to evaluate the degree to which their subordinates were performing the ten target behaviors . A second instrument containing seven items was developed which allowed subjects to report the degree to which they felt they were performing these behaviors . Data were collected from supervisors and subjects using these instruments both before and after treatment. Treatment consisted of a workshop having two components: 1) the presentation of the ten behaviors which supervisors had identified as being desirable, and 2) a structured approach to skill mastery which utilized fantasy, planning and problem solving. Post-treatment evaluations of subjects by supervisors were significantly higher than the corresponding pre-treatment evaluations, t (28) = 3.11, p < .01, providing support for the hypothesis that a structured group experience has a beneficial effect on the transition from the role of college student to the role of working professional.
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    MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTION IN JUVENILE CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES DURING COVID-19
    (2023) Ross Benedick, Amanda; Taboada Barber, Ana; Special Education; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Students with disabilities are overrepresented in correctional settings in the United States and there is a dearth of information in the professional literature about the adequacy of instruction for these youth. Moreover, during the recent COVID-19 pandemic (2020-2022), access to education was abridged for many youth including those in juvenile correctional facilities (JCFs). This dissertation addresses the adequacy of academic instruction in juvenile corrections with a specific focus on mathematics instruction for youth receiving special education services. After an introduction to the topic in this first chapter, Chapter II presents a systematic review of academic and vocational interventions in juvenile correctional facilities (JCFs). Chapter III presents a descriptive study of special education mathematics teachers in JCF. Among other things the survey attempted to provide a snapshot of curriculum choices, instructional contexts, instructional adaptations for students with disabilities, and barriers to instruction for students during the initial weeks (March 20, 2020, through July 31, 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was framed by the existing literature on evidence- based mathematical curriculum and instructional approaches found to be successful in traditional secondary school settings. Results showed that the 31 respondents infrequently used state and locally based curriculum, frequently incorporated the use of student calculators when teaching, and found only a few barriers to teaching during the initial weeks of COVID-19 pandemic.Chapter IV provides suggestions to practitioners working in JCFs in preparation for any future health emergency. While directed at special education mathematics teachers and administrators in these facilities, other practitioners who work in JCFs could benefit from these tips. Proactive planning is a theme present in all the suggestions created in response to the concerns and needs presented by both administrators and teachers working in JCF at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Chapter V summarizes and synthesizes information from the systematic literature review, the empirical study presented in Chapter III, and the suggestions for practitioners presented in Chapter IV. The final chapter also discusses implications that flow from the elements of the dissertation and suggests areas for future research.
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    A CRITICAL FEMINIST METHODOLOGY OF UNDERGRADUATE BLACK WOMXN AT HWIs & HOW THEY DEFINED, CREATED, AND SUSTAINED COMMUNITY AND SUPPORT DURING BLM, COVID-19, AND VIRTUAL LEARNING
    (2023) Greene, Patrice; Kelly, Dr. Bridget Turner; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    The simultaneous impact of COVID-19, BLM racial uprisings, and virtual learning caused a societal shift as a global pandemic, global protests, and widespread campus closures placed the world in unprecedented times. Though these societal events had a profound global impact, how undergraduate Black womxn experienced and navigated these times is understudied throughout literature. This study explored how undergraduate Black womxn at historically white institutions (HWIs) defined, created and sustained community and support during the societal context of Black Lives Matter (BLM), COVID-19, and virtual learning. Utilizing Black Feminist Thought and critical feminist methodology, eight collaborators shared their experiences through individual interviews, artifact reviews, and a focus group. The study focused on two guiding questions: 1.) How are undergraduate Black womxn at historically white institutions defining community and support in the context of COVID-19, BLM, and virtual learning? And 2.) How have undergraduate Black womxn at historically white institutions supported and built community with one another during COVID-19, BLM, and virtual learning? The findings revealed these emergent themes: (1) Defining and (Re)Defining Community and Support, (2): Navigating COVID-19, BLM, and Virtual Learning: Emotional Processing, (3): Seeking and/or Continuing Inclusive Curricular Co-Curricular Experiences, (4) BLM & The Pandemic: An Opportunity for Understanding Within and Across the Diaspora, and (5): The Role of Social Media and Technology in Creating and Sustaining Community and Support. The findings illuminate how Black womxn undergraduate students ascribe meaning to community and support and how they traversed the emotional impact of the societal shift.
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    Therapist Cultural Humility, Black LGB Identity Centrality, and Therapeutic Outcomes in Black LGB Adults.
    (2023) Teran Hernandez, Manuel; Shin, Richard Q.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Black lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults experience discrimination at individual and institutional levels (Page et al., 2020) in part due to simultaneous experiences of anti-Black racism and heterosexism. Despite this, Black LGB adults continue to underutilize therapeutic services and also report high rates of premature termination from therapy (Garrett-Walker & Longmire-Avital, 2018). The current study advances the literature by investigating the association between therapist cultural humility, Black LGB centrality, and therapeutic outcomes among Black LGB adults. A sample of Black LGB adults (N = 157) participated in an online survey to respond to measures on demographic information, therapist cultural humility, centrality with their race x sexual orientation (Black LGB centrality), and therapeutic outcomes. Results showed that therapist cultural humility was a significant predictor of therapist satisfaction but not future utilization of counseling services while controlling for age and socioeconomic status among Black LGB adults. The analyses found that Black LGB centrality was not a significant moderator in the association between therapist cultural humility and therapist satisfaction, and only significant in the relation between future utilization of counseling services for participants who reported high levels of Black LGB centrality. Recommendations for future clinical practice and research efforts are provided.
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    EXPLORING BLACK WOMEN’S HESA DOCTORAL EXPERIENCES AT HWIS: AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ENGAGEMENT USING CRITICAL NARRATIVE INQUIRY
    (2023) Clarke, Ashley Hixson; Kelly, Dr. Bridget T.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    The purpose of this study was to explore Black women’s experiences in higher education and student affairs (HESA) doctoral programs at historically white institutions (HWIs). More specifically, this study explored how Black women connected their HESA doctoral experiences with their social media engagement. Limited literature has captured Black women doctoral students’ experiences in the academy broadly, and there exists even less for Black doctoral students in HESA. Nascent research highlighted Black women’s colleges experiences, undergraduate and graduate students (master and doctoral), with strategies for navigating HWIs. One strategy for navigating HWIs is through community building with other Black women. Through digital technology, such as social media, community building has a wide reach to connect with other women, and other Black women college students. As such, social media was explored to understand how Black women college students connected their education to social media engagement. Employing digital Black feminism as the theoretical framework, this study contributed new knowledge for understanding how Black women connected their HESA doctoral experiences and social media engagement. This study complicated notions of agency and authenticity in Black women’s HESA doctoral programs and their social media engagement. Additionally, this study highlighted the complexities in how Black women doctoral students are socialized in the academy, specifically in HESA graduate programs at HWIs. Using critical narrative inquiry, eight Black women HESA doctoral students engaged alongside the primary researcher for an individual interview and a collective co-analysis. The interviews were guided by a co-constructive protocol where the co-researchers provided their input on topics to discuss individually. The co-researchers also met for a 1-hour co-analysis process as a collective group to share their insights on the findings. The findings revealed the following themes and subthemes: (a) Censorship at the HWI, followed by the subthemes of Researcher Socialization in the Academy and Reconciliation with HWIs; (b) Censorship on Social Media, followed by the subtheme of Scholar Tensions on Social Media; and (c) Presence of Doctoral Experiences when Engaging on Social Media. The findings illuminated how Black women doctoral students named their socialization process in their HESA doctoral program, how they navigated multiple spaces, and the advantageous ways they used social media as HESA doctoral students.
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    An Explanatory Case Study: Exploring How Implementing Change Efforts Influences Community College Administrators' Understanding of Racial Equity
    (2023) Newsome, Antoinette; Griffin, Dr. Kimberly A.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    While there is an increase in racial and ethnic diversity on college campuses, the rate of degree completion remains uneven and disproportionate to the population (Aud et al., 2012; Williams, 2013). For Black and Latinx students at both two- and four-year institutions, degree completion issues remain persistent and have widened over time (Taylor et al., 2020). Scholars have explored how institutions are trying to achieve racial equity on college campuses (Dowd, 2007; Harris III & Bensimon, 2007; McNair et al., 2020; Witham et al., 2015), particularly focusing on equity-minded policies and practices that are enacted through formalized processes led by external initiatives (e.g., AAC&U’s Committing to Equity Project, CUE Equity Scorecard) and the impact of state and federal regulations to promote racial equity at the community college level (Felix, 2021). While researchers have documented the impact of these interventions, there is limited examination of internal, self-directed types of institutional equity initiatives, especially in the community college context. Using an explanatory case study methodology, this study examined a self-directed racial equity change effort at a community college in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The study used interviews, participant-observations, and document analysis grounded in Shared Equity Leadership and equity-mindedness as the guiding frameworks of the study. My study addressed the following research questions: (1) How, if at all, do individuals engaged in an organizational change process at their institution evolve in their understanding of racial equity over time?; (1a) What experiences, opportunities, and relationships influenced how they define and understand racial equity?; (2) How, if at all, do their roles influence how individuals think about and engage in the process of implementing racial equity-based change? My study revealed the evolution of racial equity understanding for five community college administrators that engaged in a racial equity change process. The findings highlighted significant experiences, opportunities, and relationships that were central to their growth and development. Their role on campus and on racial equity workgroups and teams also influenced the way participants thought about and engaged in implementing racial equity-based change. Overall, the study found that identity is key in shaping how people engage in the implementation process, personal identity may influence individual level understanding, division may shape what is a priority and tactics leveraged to support racial equity efforts, and level of leadership (on and off the team) informs whether you can hold people accountable and how you do so.
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    NETWORKS THAT MATTER: AN EXPLORATORY CASE STUDY ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PEER NETWORKS FOR GRADUATE SCHOOL CHOICE AMONG STUDENTS OF COLOR IN A MCNAIR PROGRAM
    (2023) Breen, Stephanie M; Griffin, Kimberly A.; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Efforts to broaden participation and access in graduate education have proliferated in recent decades, with federally funded interventions established to increase the number of historically marginalized students in graduate education (Council of Graduate Schools, 2008). The Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program, a notable intervention, prepares high-achieving students from low-income, first-generation, and racially minoritized backgrounds to pursue doctoral degrees through scholarly activities, research, and advising (Council of Graduate Schools, 2008; McNair Scholars Program, 2020). Although access to graduate education has traditionally focused on equipping students through the necessary tools and resources, limited consideration has been given to the potential impact of peer networks established within these programs in the advancement of Students of Color towards graduate education.Using an exploratory single-site case study methodology, this study examined a twofold phenomena: the factors influencing the graduate school choices of Students of Color in a McNair Scholars Program, and the impact of peer networks within the program on their decision-making processes. By conducting interviews with 14 program alumni and 3 staff, observing program events, and analyzing program artifacts, this study aimed to address three central research questions: (1) How do Students of Color who have participated in a McNair Program describe their graduate school choice process? (2) How, if at all, do students’ McNair Program peers influence the ways students engage in the graduate school choice process? (3) How do McNair Programs facilitate or inhibit the influence that peer relationships play in the graduate school choice processes of Students of Color? Key findings of the study underscored the relational elements and factors that influenced the graduate school choice process of Students of Color. Furthermore, the findings revealed that peer networks established within the McNair Program provided Students of Color with social capital that aided in their navigation of the graduate school choice process. Students of Color received support, encouragement, validation, and knowledge from their peers, including cohortmates, older peers, and alumni, to make informed decisions about their futures. Moreover, the McNair Program that served as the site for this case study intentionally fostered an environment that nurtured these meaningful peer relationships. The study results yield transferable and practical insights to the field of higher education as well as future avenues for research on Students of Color as they explore their post-baccalaureate options.
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    THE ROLE OF SOCIAL DESIRABILITY IN STRUCTURED AND NARRATIVE SELF-REPORT DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC
    (2023) Delehanty, Alexandria Travis; Teglasi, Hedwig; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    This research addressed the key question: Does social desirability operate as a validity confound by adding irrelevant variance to self-reports and narratives, or does it serve as a valuable source of information on how individuals choose to adapt. This study used three conceptualizations of social desirability (the Marlowe-Crowne need for approval, and impression management and self-deception from the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) and investigated their respective relations with self-reports of positive and negative paradigms (e.g. stress and coping, negative and positive affect). Each of these conceptualizations was also related to narrative-based locus of control and coping. The sample comprised 177 U.S. teachers who completed surveys during January-April 2021, in the beginning of the transition back to in-person learning from COVID. Results indicated that social desirability did not operate as a validity confound, and that it served as a valuable source of information of respondents’ personal values in how it influenced the relations among self-reports and coded narratives.
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    Connection in the Lives of LGBTQ+ South Asians: A Phenomenological Study
    (2023) Pasha, Amber Maryam; Worthington, Roger L; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Connection has been found to be an important factor for LGBTQ+ wellbeing as it pertains to the relationships between stigma, discrimination, and psychological distress, and LGBTQ+ people of color in particular are known to face intersectional minority stress at high levels. This study examined the role of connection specifically for LGBTQ+ South Asians, a population which is highly underrepresented within both LGBTQ+ and South Asian literatures. Fifteen LGBTQ+ second-generation South Asian adults, aged 19-35, were interviewed about their insights regarding connection and disconnection within their own lived experience. Interview transcripts were analyzed using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis and revealed common experiential themes across the group of interviewees, which reflected three distinct forms of connection participants deemed as distinctly meaningful: i) interpersonal connections and context ii) intrapersonal connection, and iii) indirect connection. Subthemes reflected unique challenges, joys, struggles, and examples of LGBTQ+ South Asian resilience in each of these life areas. Implications of these findings are discussed for counseling professionals, higher education professionals, community organizations, and others seeking to better understand and support the wellbeing of this population.
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    PARENTAL ETHNIC-RACIAL SOCIALIZATION PROCESSES AMONG CHINESE AMERICAN FAMILIES WITH YOUNG CHILDREN
    (2023) Zhang, Xinyi; Wang, Cixin; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Despite literature suggesting that socializing children of color regarding race and ethnicity is key to protect them against racism in America, little is known about how Asian American young children are ethnically and racially socialized by their parents. In the event of increased anti-Asian racism during COVID-19, it becomes urgent that we address this knowledge gap. The goal of the present study is to understand the parental ethnic-racial socialization processes with Asian American young children from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Fifty-seven low-income (n=36) and middle-and-upper-income (n=21) Chinese American mothers (Mage = 37.14, SD =4.99) of four-to-seven-year-old children (Mage =5.63, SD =0.82, female n=33, 58%) from Maryland and New York were interviewed. The participants shared the frequency and strategies of their ethnic-racial socialization processes and their perception of the effectiveness of these strategies. Using qualitative content analyses, results indicated that: (a) The two income groups shared the same frequency of using each ethnic-racial socialization dimension (cultural socialization, preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and egalitarianism and silence about race); (b) Different patterns emerged in the content of how they used preparation for bias and promotion of mistrust; (c) Mothers from the low-income group were more likely to experience discrimination and to share the discrimination experiences with their children to prepare them for bias; (d) Mothers from both of the income groups recognized that their children face model minority stereotypes in the society, but they held different attitudes towards the stereotypes; (e) The two income groups found cultural socialization helpful and promotion of mistrust harmful. More diversity and less consensus were found in their perception of the effectiveness of preparation for bias and egalitarianism and silence about race. The current study is the first study to reveal diversity of ethnic-racial socialization processes among the Chinese American families with young children. It provides empirical support that socioeconomic context is an indispensable variable in understanding ethnic-racial socialization processes in families of color.
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    Getting on the Same Page: Associations of Immediacy and Client-Therapist Alliance Congruence
    (2022) Hillman, Justin William; Kivlighan, Jr., Dennis M; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    This study examined the within-dyad association of immediacy (i.e., a skill that therapists use to work with the therapeutic relationship in the here-and-now) with the strength and congruence of the working alliance across 1352 sessions of 58 adult community clients seeing 11 doctoral student therapists in individual psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy. As a preliminary step, the factor structure and validity were tested for the Metacommunication in Session Questionnaire–Client Form (MSQ-C), a client-rated measure of immediacy adapted from the supervisory MSQ (Calvert, Deane, & Grenyer, 2020). After every session, clients and therapists completed the Working Alliance Inventory–Short Revised (WAI-SR; Hatcher & Gillaspy, 2006) and clients completed the MSQ-C. Factor analysis supported a two-factor structure for MSQ-C (Open Communication and Managing Disagreement/Discomfort factors). Validity of the MSQ-C was supported by predicted correlations with measures of helping skills, sessions quality, alliance, and therapist reported immediacy use, although some associations varied depending on the client or therapist rater perspective. Results of multilevel, latent variable models found that when clients reported more immediacy in a session compared to their average session, they tended to report a stronger alliance; and this effect was strongest in earlier sessions, weaker in magnitude in middle sessions, and non-significant in later sessions. Results of multilevel truth-and-bias models showed that therapist alliance ratings were temporally congruent with client alliance ratings, but client-perceived immediacy did not predict alliance congruence. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
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    LOOKING THROUGH THEIR EYES: A MULTIPLE CASE STUDY OF ASIAN INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCES OF RACE, RACIALIZATION, RACISM, AND NEO-RACISM AT A HISTORICALLY WHITE INSTITUTION IN THE UNITED STATES
    (2023) Zheng, Jia; Park, Julie; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    The COVID-19 global pandemic has surfaced glaring racial disparities and multiple epidemics. The exacerbated anti-Asian racism and the reemergence of “yellow peril” and “perpetual foreigner” stereotypes has resulted in many Asian international students’ increased awareness of race and racism. However, for far too long, international student research has extensively focused on acculturation related needs and related stressors whereas their perceptions and experiences related to race, racialization, racism, and neo-racism remain understudied in the field of higher education. Despite the growing body of literature on Asian international students and race, little research has disaggregated data and focused on how ethnic subgroups of Asian international students—East Asian, South Asian, and Southeast international students—perceive and describe their experiences of race, racialization, racism, and neo-racism. Particularly lacking is research on South Asian and Southeast Asian international students’ perceptions and experiences. Furthermore, there is a dearth of research that examined how Asian international students’ perceptions and experiences may change over the course of their time in the United States. This study utilizes a multiple case study methodology and borrows tools from ethnographic methods, which is grounded in EYES theory and neo-racism, to explore and understand Asian international students’ perceptions and experiences of race, racialization, racism, and neo-racism at a large, public, Research-1, land-grant, and flagship Historically White Institution (“Global University”) in the Middle Atlantic region of the United States. Through participant observation and two-rounds of individual interviews, I compared and contrasted three cases of East Asian, South Asian, and Southeast Asian international students’ perceptions and experiences, including five East Asian, six South Asian, and three Southeast Asian international students. The research questions that guided this study were: (1) How do Asian international students perceive and describe their experiences of race, racialization, and of experiencing racism and neo-racism at an HWI? Specifically, how do Asian international students describe how they understand themselves and others regarding race, racialization, racism, and neo-racism? And how do subgroups of Asian international students (EA, SA, and SEA) perceive and describe their perceptions and experiences related to race, racialization, racism and neo-racism? (2) In what ways do Asian international students’ perceptions and experiences of race, racialization, racism, and neo-racism change, if at all, over the course of their time in the United States? Key findings include East Asian, South Asian, and Southeast Asian international students’ similar and divergent perceptions of their racial identity and those of other racial groups, as shaped by their home countries’ contexts, as well as Asian international students’ minimization of the racialization experienced by themselves and others, a colorblind view of racism, more recognition of neo-racism, and shifting perceptions of racism and neo-racism over the course of their time in the United States. While many Asian international students are vulnerable to racism and neo-racism, they also reinforce racial inequities. These findings point to the importance of recognizing the racial identity and racialized experiences of Asian international students and supporting them in navigating and disrupting racial inequities.
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    Navigating college search and choice: How immigrant capital paves a path to postsecondary education for first-generation Students of Color
    (2023) Malcolm, Moya Nikisha; Griffin, Kimberly A; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    Immigrant youth represent one of the fastest growing and most diverse groups in the U.S. K-16 system. Though immigrant youth generally report high educational aspirations, they face multiple interrelated obstacles to postsecondary enrollment. Despite barriers, data indicate that immigrants are going to college and in some cases are enrolling at a rate higher than their non-immigrant counterparts. Previous research highlights multiple forms of capital, including community cultural wealth (Yosso, 2005), that immigrants who share a racial or ethnic background leverage to access higher education. However, few studies have examined the extent to which immigrants, across race and ethnicity, engage similar resources to navigate the college choice process. This study sheds light on the pre-college experiences of a racially diverse sample of 1.5-generation immigrants who, at the time of this study, were first-year students at a 4-year institution.The following research questions guided this study: (a) How do low-income immigrant students of color engage in the college search and choice process? (b) How do various forms of capital and community resources shape students’ college choice process. Through semistructured interviews, 10 Asian, Black, and Latinx immigrants shared detailed accounts of their family background, migration, and transition to U.S. schools; development of college aspirations; and college search, application, and decision-making experiences. Participants also discussed the tools and resources they used, individuals who assisted them, and how they made sense of their experiences, significant moments, and turning points in their journey. Findings reveal multiple forms of capital that developed within participants’ immigrant families: capital that fostered an early predisposition toward college and enabled participants to navigate a complex college application process, during the COVID-19 pandemic, to ultimately gain admission to multiple postsecondary institutions. Findings from this study suggest immigrant capital as a unifying concept capturing skills, assets, and perspectives immigrants use to achieve their educational goals. Findings also have implications for future research, policy, and practice.
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    Impacts of Identity Change on Trans and Disabled College Students
    (2023) Klager, Adam; Espino, Michelle M; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    While many student development theories exist to understand how students grow in their understandings of their identities during their time in college, no theories exist to understand students who are experiencing a change in their social identities themselves. As previous research has indicated that identity change can be stressful and isolating, as well as an educational process, research is needed to understand how to best support students and understand the impacts of their identity changes. This study attempted to start filling this gap in the literature by using narrative inquiry and Abes et al.’s (2007) reconceptualization of the Model of Multiple Dimensions of Identity to understand the identity changes of undergraduate transgender students and students who acquired physical disabilities. The study’s findings revealed the impact that identity change can have on students’ need for community, personal relationships, social interactions, and holistic growth. These findings offered new perspectives on the experiences of trans and disabled college students, demonstrating the need for future research on these populations’ identities, as well as on students’ experiences of identity change overall.
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    Differential Codevelopment of Working Alliance and Session Evaluation in Counseling Dyads
    (2022) Lin, Shihong; Kivlighan, Dennis; Counseling and Personnel Services; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)
    We examined session quality measured by the session evaluation scale (SES) and the working alliance measured by WAI-SR using the DSEM model, and reported similarities and differences in the codevelopment of the working alliance and session evaluation. In addition, we examined how the dynamic patterns of codevelopment for working alliance and session evaluation are associated with counseling outcomes. Major findings include: 1) there are significant actor effects for both working alliance and session evaluation; 2) In our study, there is no difference between therapist partner effects and client partner effects, for both working alliance and session evaluation; 3) The paths for session-to-session carryover effects (actor and partner effects) were stronger for working alliance than they are for session evaluation; 4) the therapist partner effects for session quality was statistically significantly associated with therapy outcome measure by the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2. Clinical implications of those findings were discussed.
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    CAREER CERTAINTY OF COLLEGE STUDENT ATHLETlCS IN REVENUE VS. NON- REVENUE SPORTS
    (2002) Davtyan, Arman; Adams-Gaston, Javaune; Counseling and Personnel Services; University of Maryland (College Park, Md); Digital Repository at the University of Maryland
    This thesis explored the career certainty of college student-athletes, specifically looking for differences between athletes in revenue and non-revenue sports. The My Vocational Situation survey was administered to a sample of Division I athletes representing both revenue and non-revenue sports to assess their vocational identity, as well as to gain information regarding possible difficulties and barriers against career certainty in student-athletes. Additionally, this thesis sought to find relationships between the following variables: (a) vocational identity and perceived barriers to career decision-making, (b) intent to pursue professional athletics and other non-athletic career aspirations, (c) vocational identity and career aspirations, and (d) sport type and intent to play professionally. Although no significant differences were observed between revenue and non-revenue athletes with respect to career certainty, chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between all four sets of variables above (a-d). Based on these findings, implications for practice and future research are discussed.