SELF-AWARENESS AND ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN FACE AND DIGNITY CULTURES: IMPLICATIONS FOR REDUCING DISHONESTY ACROSS CULTURES
Gelfand, Michele J
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To date, research on how to curb unethical behavior has been done in primarily Western contexts, and we have very little knowledge of whether such effects are generalizable. In this paper, two studies investigated whether different aspects of self-awareness reduce unethical behavior in different cultures. Study 1 showed that increasing private self-awareness did not stop Chinese participants from behaving dishonestly. Further, the results also suggested that while increasing public self-awareness inhibits dishonest behavior among Chinese, it does not help to reduce cheating among American participants. Study 2 attempted to demonstrate the causal link between face vs. dignity cultures and different self-awareness processes, but the study results did not provide evidence for such relations. Theoretical and practical implications of the studies, as well as future directions, are discussed.