Seeing Behind The Scene: Using Symmetry To Reason About Objects in Cluttered Environments
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Rapid advances in robotic technology are bringing robots out of the controlled environments of assembly lines and factories into the unstructured and unpredictable real-life workspaces of human beings. One of the prerequisites for operating in such environments is the ability to grasp previously unobserved physical objects. To achieve this individual objects have to be delineated from the rest of the environment and their shape properties estimated from incomplete observations of the scene. This remains a challenging task due to the lack of prior information about the shape and pose of the object as well as occlusions in cluttered scenes. We attempt to solve this problem by utilizing the powerful concept of symmetry. Symmetry is ubiquitous in both natural and man-made environments. It reveals redundancies in the structure of the world around us and thus can be used in a variety of visual processing tasks. In this thesis we propose a complete pipeline for detecting symmetric objects and recovering their rotational and reflectional symmetries from 3D reconstructions of natural scenes. We begin by obtaining a multiple-view 3D pointcloud of the scene using the Kinect Fusion algorithm. Additionally a voxelized occupancy map of the scene is extracted in order to reason about occlusions. We propose two classes of algorithms for symmetry detection: curve based and surface based. Curve based algorithm relies on extracting and matching surface normal edge curves in the pointcloud. A more efficient surface based algorithm works by fitting symmetry axes/planes to the geometry of the smooth surfaces of the scene. In order to segment the objects we introduce a segmentation approach that uses symmetry as a global grouping principle. It extracts points of the scene that are consistent with a given symmetry candidate. To evaluate the performance of our symmetry detection and segmentation algorithms we construct a dataset of cluttered tabletop scenes with ground truth object masks and corresponding symmetries. Finally we demonstrate how our pipeline can be used by a mobile robot to detect and grasp objects in a house scenario.