A Comparison of Reading Comprehension Skills Taught in Five Elementary School Reading Series and Teacher Preparation to Teach Reading: Implications for Program Planners for the Hearing Impaired
Clack, James Leland
Splaine, John E.
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This researcher has studied the problems that teachers and program planners have in selecting basic, supplementary and remedial reading comprehension materials for hearing impaired students from commercially produced materials. The first phase was a systematic analysis of the teacher's manuals of five current editions of K-6 reading series used in regular public schools and residential schools and classes for the deaf. The reading comprehension objectives in each series were compiled and classified into twelve categories using Bloom’s Cognitive Development Levels. The objectives were analyzed and compared relative to scope, format and timing. Tables and charts were used to organize the objectives in each category from all five series. The second phase was the teacher interviews. Two groups of five teachers each were selected to be interviewed based on availability. The first group was five elementary school teachers with hearing impaired students in their classes. The second group was five residential school for the deaf teachers. Each interview was conducted and completed at the respective teacher's school. They were asked to describe their training to teach reading, procedures and criteria used to select reading materials and concepts of transformational grammar. A questionnaire was developed and used to conduct the interviews. The data was categorized and the responses were studied for significance. The textbook analysis revealed significant variations in scope, format and timing of their objective statements. Only one series clearly differentiated its mastery levels. The public school teachers had an average of 16.2 credit hours training to teach reading while the residential school teachers had an average of 7.2 credit hours. Neither group had more than a minimum introduction to cognitive and child development theories. Only one public and one residential teacher had significant training in transformational grammar. The public school teachers had little knowledge of the educational needs of the hearing impaired. Using the results of this project, an inservice program was described including cognitive and child development theories, transformational grammar and educational technology skills to help teachers improve their ability to apply criterion-reference objectives to select instructional materials for hearing impaired children.