DEVELOPMENT OF LI+ AND NA+ CONDUCTING CERAMICS AND CERAMIC STRUCTURES FOR USE IN SOLID STATE BATTERIES
Wachsman, Eric D
MetadataShow full item record
A solid state lithium metal battery based on a lithium garnet material was developed, constructed and tested. Specifically, a porous-dense-porous trilayer structure was fabricated by tape casting, a roll-to-roll technique conducive to high volume manufacturing. The high density and thin center layer (< 20 μm) effectively blocks dendrites even over hundreds of cycles. The microstructured porous layers, serving as electrode supports, are demonstrated to increase the interfacial surface area available to the electrodes and increase cathode loading. Reproducibility of flat, well sintered ceramics was achieved with consistent powderbed lattice parameter and ball milling of powderbed. Together, the resistance of the LLCZN trilayer was measured at an average of 7.6 ohm-cm2 in a symmetric lithium cell, significantly lower than any other reported literature results. Building on these results, a full cell with a lithium metal anode, LLCZN trilayer electrolyte, and LiCoO2 cathode was cycled 100 cycles without decay and an average ASR of 117 ohm-cm2. After cycling, the cell was held at open circuit for 24 hours without any voltage fade, demonstrating the absence of a dendrite or short-circuit of any type. Cost calculations guided the optimization of a trilayer structure predicted that resulting cells will be highly competitive in the marketplace as intrinsically safe lithium batteries with energy densities greater than 300 Wh/kg and 1000 Wh/L for under $100/kWh. Also in the pursuit of solid state batteries, an improved Na+ superionic conductor (NASICON) composition, Na3Zr2Si2PO12, was developed with a conductivity of 1.9x10-3 S/cm. New super-lithiated lithium garnet compositions, Li7.06La3Zr1.94Y0.06O12 and Li7.16La3Zr1.84Y0.16O12, were developed and studied revealing insights about the mechanisms of conductivity in lithium garnets.