ASSOCIATION OF SERUM VITAMIN D AND KEY CO-NUTRIENTS IN RELATION TO HYPERTENSION: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY BASED ON NHANES DATA
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Observational studies demonstrate strong associations between deficient serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and cardiovascular disease. To further examine the association between vitamin D and hypertension (HTN), data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to assess whether the association between vitamin D and HTN varies by sufficiency of key co-nutrients necessary for metabolic vitamin D reactions to occur. Logistic regression results demonstrate independent effect modification by calcium, magnesium, and vitamin A on the association between vitamin D and HTN. Among non-pregnant adults with adequate renal function, those with low levels of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D levels had 1.75 times the odds of HTN compared to those with sufficient vitamin D levels (p = <0.0001). Additionally, participants with low levels of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, and vitamin D had 5.43 times the odds of HTN compared to those with vitamin D sufficiency (p = 0.0103).