TOOLS TO SUPPORT TRANSPORTATION EMISSIONS REDUCTION EFFORTS: A MULTIFACETED APPROACH
Miller-Hooks, Elise D
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The transportation sector is a significant contributor to current global climatic problems, one of the most prominent problems that today's society faces. In this dissertation, three complementary problems are addressed to support emissions reduction efforts by providing tools to help reduce demand for fossil fuels. The first problem addresses alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) fleet operations considering limited infrastructure availability and vehicle characteristics that contribute to emission reduction efforts by: supporting alternative fuel use and reducing carbon-intensive freight activity. A Green Vehicle Routing Problem (G-VRP) is formulated and techniques are proposed for its solution. These techniques will aid organizations with AFV fleets in overcoming difficulties that exist as a result of limited refueling infrastructure and will allow companies considering conversion to a fleet of AFVs to understand the potential impact of their decision on daily operations and costs. The second problem is aimed at supporting SOV commute trip reduction efforts through alternative transportation options. This problem contributes to emission reduction efforts by supporting reduction of carbon-intensive travel activity. Following a descriptive analysis of commuter survey data obtained from the University of Maryland, College Park campus, ordered-response models were developed to investigate the market for vanpooling. The model results show that demand for vanpooling in the role of passenger and driver have differences and the factors affecting these demands are not necessarily the same. Factors considered include: status, willingness-to-pay, distance, residential location, commuting habits, demographics and service characteristics. The third problem focuses on providing essential input data, origin-destination (OD) demand, for analysis of various strategies, to address emission reduction by helping to improve system efficiency and reducing carbon-intensive travel activity. A two-stage subarea OD demand estimation procedure is proposed to construct and update important time-dependent OD demand input for subarea analysis in an effort to overcome the computational limits of Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) methodologies. The proposed method in conjunction with path-based simulation-assignment systems can provide an evolving platform for integrating operational considerations in planning models for effective decision support for agencies that are considering strategies for transportation emissions reduction.