WIRELESS NETWORK COCAST: COOPERATIVE COMMUNICATIONS WITH SPACE-TIME NETWORK CODING
Lai, Hung-Quoc Duc
Liu, K. J. Ray
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Traditional cooperative communications can greatly improve communication performance. However, transmissions from multiple relay nodes are challenging in practice. Single transmissions using time-division multiple access cause large transmission delay, but simultaneous transmissions from two or more nodes using frequency-division multiple access (FDMA), code-division multiple access (CDMA), or distributed space-time codes are associated with the issues of imperfect frequency and timing synchronization due to the asynchronous nature of cooperation. In this dissertation, we propose a novel concept of wireless network cocast (WNC) and develop its associated space-time network codes (STNCs) to overcome the foretold issues. In WNC networks, each node is allocated a time slot for its transmission and thus the issues of imperfect synchronization are eliminated. To reduce the large transmission delay, each relay node forms a unique signal, a combination of the overheard information, and transmits it to the intended destination. The combining functions at relay nodes form a STNC that ensures full spatial diversity for the transmitted information as in traditional cooperative communications. Various traditional combining techniques are utilized to design the STNCs, including FDMA-like and CDMA-like techniques and transform-based techniques with the use of Hadamard and Vandermonde matrices. However, a major distinction is that the combination of information from different sources happens within a relay node instead of through the air as in traditional cooperative communications. We consider a general case of multiuser relay wireless networks, where user nodes transmit and receive their information to and from a common base node with the assistance from relay nodes. We then apply the STNCs to multiuser cooperative networks, in which the user nodes are also relay nodes helping each other in their transmission. Since the cooperative nodes are distributed around the network, the node locations can be an important aspect of designing a STNC. Therefore, we propose a location-aware WNC scheme to reduce the aggregate transmit power and achieve even power distribution among the user nodes in the network. WNC networks and its associated STNCs provide spatial diversity to dramatically reduce the required transmit power. However, due to the additional processing power in receiving and retransmitting each other's information, not all nodes and WNC networks result in energy efficiency. Therefore, we first examine the power consumption in WNC networks. We then offer a TDMA-based merge process based on coalitional formation games to orderly and efficiently form cooperative groups in WNC networks. The proposed merge process substantially reduces the network power consumption and improves the network lifetime.