Whole-genome sequence analysis for pathogen detection and diagnostics
Phillippy, Adam Michael
Salzberg, Steven L
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This dissertation focuses on computational methods for improving the accuracy of commonly used nucleic acid tests for pathogen detection and diagnostics. Three specific biomolecular techniques are addressed: polymerase chain reaction, microarray comparative genomic hybridization, and whole-genome sequencing. These methods are potentially the future of diagnostics, but each requires sophisticated computational design or analysis to operate effectively. This dissertation presents novel computational methods that unlock the potential of these diagnostics by efficiently analyzing whole-genome DNA sequences. Improvements in the accuracy and resolution of each of these diagnostic tests promises more effective diagnosis of illness and rapid detection of pathogens in the environment. For designing real-time detection assays, an efficient data structure and search algorithm are presented to identify the most distinguishing sequences of a pathogen that are absent from all other sequenced genomes. Results are presented that show these "signature" sequences can be used to detect pathogens in complex samples and differentiate them from their non-pathogenic, phylogenetic near neighbors. For microarray, novel pan-genomic design and analysis methods are presented for the characterization of unknown microbial isolates. To demonstrate the effectiveness of these methods, pan-genomic arrays are applied to the study of multiple strains of the foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, revealing new insights into the diversity and evolution of the species. Finally, multiple methods are presented for the validation of whole-genome sequence assemblies, which are capable of identifying assembly errors in even finished genomes. These validated assemblies provide the ultimate nucleic acid diagnostic, revealing the entire sequence of a genome.