End-of-Life and Constant Rate Reliability Modeling for Semiconductor Packages Using Knowledge-Based Test Approaches
Bernstein, Joseph B
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End-of-life and constant rate reliability modeling for semiconductor packages are the focuses of this dissertation. Knowledge-based testing approaches are applied and the test-to-failure approach is approved to be a reliable approach. First of all, the end-of-life AF models for solder joint reliability are studied. The research results show using one universal AF model for all packages is flawed approach. An assessment matrix is generated to guide the application of AF models. The AF models chosen should be either assessed based on available data or validated through accelerated stress tests. A common model can be applied if the packages have similar structures and materials. The studies show that different AF models will be required for SnPb solder joints and SAC lead-free solder joints. Second, solder bumps under power cycling conditions are found to follow constant rate reliability models due to variations of the operating conditions. Case studies demonstrate that a constant rate reliability model is appropriate to describe non solder joint related semiconductor package failures as well. Third, the dissertation describes the rate models using Chi-square approach cannot correlate well with the expected failure mechanisms in field applications. The estimation of the upper bound using a Chi-square value from zero failure is flawed. The dissertation emphasizes that the failure data is required for the failure rate estimation. A simple but tighter approach is proposed and provides much tighter bounds in comparison of other approaches available. Last, the reliability of solder bumps in flip chip packages under power cycling conditions is studied. The bump materials and underfill materials will significantly influence the reliability of the solder bumps. A set of comparable bump materials and the underfill materials will dramatically improve the end-of-life solder bumps under power cycling loads, and bump materials are one of the most significant factors. Comparing to the field failure data obtained, the end-of-life model does not predict the failures in the field, which is more close to an approximately constant failure rate. In addition, the studies find an improper underfill material could change the failure location from solder bump cracking to ILD cracking or BGA solder joint failures.