Fischell Department of Bioengineering Research Works
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- ItemInduced pluripotent stem cell-derived cells model brain microvascular endothelial cell glucose metabolism(Springer Nature, 2022-12-09) Weber, Callie M.; Moiz, Bilal; Zic, Sophia M.; Vargas, Viviana Alpízar; Li, Andrew; Morss Clyne, AlisaGlucose transport from the blood into the brain is tightly regulated by brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC), which also use glucose as their primary energy source. To study how BMEC glucose transport contributes to cerebral glucose hypometabolism in diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, it is essential to understand how these cells metabolize glucose. Human primary BMEC (hpBMEC) can be used for BMEC metabolism studies; however, they have poor barrier function and may not recapitulate in vivo BMEC function. iPSC-derived BMEC-like cells (hiBMEC) are readily available and have good barrier function but may have an underlying epithelial signature. In this study, we examined differences between hpBMEC and hiBMEC glucose metabolism using a combination of dynamic metabolic measurements, metabolic mass spectrometry, RNA sequencing, and Western blots. hiBMEC had decreased glycolytic flux relative to hpBMEC, and the overall metabolomes and metabolic enzyme levels were different between the two cell types. However, hpBMEC and hiBMEC had similar glucose metabolism, including nearly identical glucose labeled fractions of glycolytic and TCA cycle metabolites. Treatment with astrocyte conditioned media and high glucose increased glycolysis in both hpBMEC and hiBMEC, though hpBMEC decreased glycolysis in response to fluvastatin while hiBMEC did not. Together, these results suggest that hiBMEC can be used to model cerebral vascular glucose metabolism, which expands their use beyond barrier models.
- ItemParsed synthesis of pyocyanin via co-culture enables context-dependent intercellular redox communication(Springer Nature, 2021-11-24) Chun, Kayla; Stephens, Kristina; Wang, Sally; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Payne, Gregory F.; Bentley, William E.Microbial co-cultures and consortia are of interest in cell-based molecular production and even as “smart” therapeutics in that one can take advantage of division of labor and specialization to expand both the range of available functions and mechanisms for control. The development of tools that enable coordination and modulation of consortia will be crucial for future application of multi-population cultures. In particular, these systems would benefit from an expanded toolset that enables orthogonal inter-strain communication. We created a co-culture for the synthesis of a redox-active phenazine signaling molecule, pyocyanin (PYO), by dividing its synthesis into the generation of its intermediate, phenazine carboxylic acid (PCA) from the first strain, followed by consumption of PCA and generation of PYO in a second strain. Interestingly, both PCA and PYO can be used to actuate gene expression in cells engineered with the soxRS oxidative stress regulon, although importantly this signaling activity was found to depend on growth media. That is, like other signaling motifs in bacterial systems, the signaling activity is context dependent. We then used this co-culture’s phenazine signals in a tri-culture to modulate gene expression and production of three model products: quorum sensing molecule autoinducer-1 and two fluorescent marker proteins, eGFP and DsRed. We also showed how these redox-based signals could be intermingled with other quorum-sensing (QS) signals which are more commonly used in synthetic biology, to control complex behaviors. To provide control over product synthesis in the tri-cultures, we also showed how a QS-induced growth control module could guide metabolic flux in one population and at the same time guide overall tri-culture function. Specifically, we showed that phenazine signal recognition, enabled through the oxidative stress response regulon soxRS, was dependent on media composition such that signal propagation within our parsed synthetic system could guide different desired outcomes based on the prevailing environment. In doing so, we expanded the range of signaling molecules available for coordination and the modes by which they can be utilized to influence overall function of a multi-population culture. Our results show that redox-based signaling can be intermingled with other quorum sensing signaling in ways that enable user-defined control of microbial consortia yielding various outcomes defined by culture medium. Further, we demonstrated the utility of our previously designed growth control module in influencing signal propagation and metabolic activity is unimpeded by orthogonal redox-based signaling. By exploring novel multi-modal strategies for guiding communication and consortia outcome, the concepts introduced here may prove to be useful for coordination of multiple populations within complex microbial systems.
- ItemDecrease of resistance to air flow with nasal strips as measured with the airflow perturbation device(Springer Nature, 2004-10-22) Wong, Lily S; Johnson, Arthur TNasal strips are used by athletes, people who snore, and asthmatics to ease the burden of breathing. Although there are some published studies that demonstrate higher flow with nasal strips, none had directly measured the effect of the strips on nasal resistance using the airflow perturbation device (APD). The APD is an inexpensive instrument that can measure respiratory resistance based on changes in mouth pressure and rate of airflow. This study tested forty-seven volunteers (14 men and 33 women), ranging in age from 17 to 51. Each volunteer was instructed to breathe normally into the APD using an oronasal mask with and without nasal strips. The APD measured respiratory resistance during inhalation, exhalation, and an average of the two. Results of a paired mean t-test comparing nasal strip against no nasal strip were statistically significant at the p = 0.05 level. The Breathe Right™ nasal dilator strips lowered nasal resistance by an average of 0.5 cm H20/Lps from an average nasal resistance of 5.5 cm H20/Lps. Nasal strips reduce nasal resistance when measured with the APD. The effect is equal during exhalation and during inhalation.
- ItemMaximum static inspiratory and expiratory pressures with different lung volumes(Springer Nature, 2006-05-05) Lausted, Christopher G; Johnson, Arthur T; Scott, William H; Johnson, Monique M; Coyne, Karen M; Coursey, Derya CMaximum pressures developed by the respiratory muscles can indicate the health of the respiratory system, help to determine maximum respiratory flow rates, and contribute to respiratory power development. Past measurements of maximum pressures have been found to be inadequate for inclusion in some exercise models involving respiration. Maximum inspiratory and expiratory airway pressures were measured over a range of lung volumes in 29 female and 19 male adults. A commercial bell spirometry system was programmed to occlude airflow at nine target lung volumes ranging from 10% to 90% of vital capacity. In women, maximum expiratory pressure increased with volume from 39 to 61 cmH2O and maximum inspiratory pressure decreased with volume from 66 to 28 cmH2O. In men, maximum expiratory pressure increased with volume from 63 to 97 cmH2O and maximum inspiratory pressure decreased with volume from 97 to 39 cmH2O. Equations describing pressures for both sexes are: Pe/Pmax = 0.1426 Ln( %VC) + 0.3402 R2 = 0.95 Pi/Pmax = 0.234 Ln(100 - %VC) - 0.0828 R2 = 0.96 These results were found to be consistent with values and trends obtained by other authors. Regression equations may be suitable for respiratory mechanics models.
- ItemA finite element model for protein transport in vivo(Springer Nature, 2007-06-28) Sadegh Zadeh, Kouroush; Elman, Howard C; Montas, Hubert J; Shirmohammadi, AdelBiological mass transport processes determine the behavior and function of cells, regulate interactions between synthetic agents and recipient targets, and are key elements in the design and use of biosensors. Accurately predicting the outcomes of such processes is crucial to both enhancing our understanding of how these systems function, enabling the design of effective strategies to control their function, and verifying that engineered solutions perform according to plan. A Galerkin-based finite element model was developed and implemented to solve a system of two coupled partial differential equations governing biomolecule transport and reaction in live cells. The simulator was coupled, in the framework of an inverse modeling strategy, with an optimization algorithm and an experimental time series, obtained by the Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) technique, to estimate biomolecule mass transport and reaction rate parameters. In the inverse algorithm, an adaptive method was implemented to calculate sensitivity matrix. A multi-criteria termination rule was developed to stop the inverse code at the solution. The applicability of the model was illustrated by simulating the mobility and binding of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor in the nucleoplasm of mouse adenocarcinoma. The numerical simulator shows excellent agreement with the analytic solutions and experimental FRAP data. Detailed residual analysis indicates that residuals have zero mean and constant variance and are normally distributed and uncorrelated. Therefore, the necessary and sufficient criteria for least square parameter optimization, which was used in this study, were met.The developed strategy is an efficient approach to extract as much physiochemical information from the FRAP protocol as possible. Well-posedness analysis of the inverse problem, however, indicates that the FRAP protocol provides insufficient information for unique simultaneous estimation of diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters. Care should be exercised in drawing inferences, from FRAP data, regarding concentrations of free and bound proteins, average binding and diffusion times, and protein mobility unless they are confirmed by long-range Markov Chain-Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods and experimental observations.