Anthropology Theses and Dissertations
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- ItemDYNAMIC REFLECTIONS OF CAPITALISM AND CLASS IDENTITY AT THE PENNS NECK COMMUNITY: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PERSISTENCE OF DUTCH-AMERICAN TRADITIONS ON FAMILY-OPERATED FARMS AT PENNS NECK, MERCER COUNTY, NEW JERSEY(2022) Andrews, Zachary Schaller; Palus, Matthew M.; Anthropology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)Recent archaeological investigations conducted at Penns Neck, a community originally established by the descendants of Dutch immigrants in northern Mercer County, New Jersey, revealed evidence of prosperous late-colonial and post-revolutionary family networks extending from the mid eighteenth to the twentieth century. The presence of domestic residences and family-owned farming operations at Penns Neck, including those at the Schenk-Jewell farmhouse and the Covenhoven-Silvers-Logan house, provide the opportunity to examine the development of late eighteenth and nineteenth century rural communities, particularly with Dutch-heritage backgrounds, and to help explore the nuanced link between traditions utilized by farming households and larger institutional and socio-economic systems that operated within these farming communities. The research question addressed by this thesis is: what were the traditional elements of cultural identity embraced by Dutch communities, especially at Penns Neck, and how were traditions changed and adapted to the pursuit of capitalistic enterprises and ideologies. Using a Marxist approach coupled with ideas from world systems theory, analysis of consumption patterns, landscape design, and class relations can peer into the economic and social realities transpiring at these sites exposing ties to larger governing, and invisible, networks of power expressed within the community. Patterns of consumption, wealth distribution, and labor relations at Penns Neck show an intermeshing of traditional values and ideas that both resist and sway to general socio-economic pressures and circumstances emerging across the region. Spatial and temporal analysis of artifacts, architectural forms, and landscape development show clear attempts by the capitalist farmers to naturalize/solidify their place within the social-economic order, in which symbols supporting capitalistic ideologies were ingrained in the landscape. This contrasts with earlier community members that used social institutions outside the farm to raise social and political capital, rather than solely economic capital, in the community to climb and hold positions of the social hierarchy. Despite the profound changes occurring on the landscape during the occupation of the site by the Schenck and Jewell families, some traditions remain, including the use of value systems and institutions, material culture by type, and symbols that reflect the family’s Dutch ethnic heritage. At large, the study follows Wurst and Mrozowski (2016) that capitalism in not a fixed entity, but a dynamic and multi-faceted totality that both shapes and conforms to the society that embraces it, even at the community level; the cultural expression of agrarian families on the Penns Neck landscape help depict and provide an example of the dynamic nature of capitalism from the eighteenth to the twentieth century and the nuanced experience that emerging capitalistic institutions and pursuits had on the day-to-day lives of the community members. The archaeological data collected for the analysis was largely acquired during the Phase II site evaluation of the Schenk-Jewell Farm Site (28ME408), Covenhoven-Silvers-Logan House Site (28ME410), and Lower Harrison Street Domestic Site (28ME413) by the Ottery Group during the summer and winter of 2021, which yielded an artifact assemblage dating as early as the mid-eighteenth century extending across multiple family generations up to the twentieth century. The archaeological investigation revealed evidence of the original location of the main houses and multiple structural features associated with the former outbuildings in the adjacent work yards. Historical documentation, including state land records, census and tax records, deeds and wills, maps and aerials, and historic photos, were analyzed, to contextualize the archaeological data and the family histories in a way that addresses the themes of this thesis. Archaeological sites, located in both Old World and New World contexts, that were identified during the literature review were compared in an attempt to identify Dutch-American cultural patterns present across the sites. While the analysis was successful in tracing certain elements of Dutch cultural continuity, that is in the occurrence of ceramic types and architectural forms, of the early families settling at Penns Neck, these traditions were challenged and refitted to accommodate the needs of emerging farming operations, which attempted to capitalize on the connection of Penns Neck into a wider regional economy during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
- ItemSTRANDED AND SANDED IN: DRONE MOUNTED AERIAL MAGNETOMETER IDENTIFICATION OF BURIED AND SUBMERGED SHIPWRECKS ON THE NEW JERSEY COAST(2022) Davis, Cullan Matthew; Palus, Matthew; Anthropology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)An estimated 3,000 to 7,000 shipwrecks have occurred off the coast of New Jersey, with hundreds occurring within the littoral zone. These sites have subsequently been buried by natural sand movement and beach replenishment projects or exist in a partially buried state within the surf zone. While terrestrial and vessel-mounted magnetometer surveys are not feasible in this shallow environment, the development of ultra-sensitive drone and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing platforms has provided the potential ability to rapidly identify these cultural materials for compliance and planning of weather and climate change resiliency projects. This thesis proves the capabilities of a MAGPi ML-4 atomic magnetometer, initially designed to detect small, buried munitions and unexploded ordinance of approximately eight pounds of ferrous material, to accurately and rapidly identify multiple of types of shipwrecks in the high energy coastal environment where traditional survey methods are precluded when coupled with a Matrice 600 Pro 6-rotor drone. This thesis also proved the ability for this setup to effectively bridge the gap between terrestrial and underwater archaeological surveys as presented in the littoral zone, while producing data of sufficient quality to promote the development of the theoretical understanding of the relationship between shipwrecks and the larger maritime cultural landscape. Three shipwrecks were used for data collection, representing vessels comprised of iron, wood, and steel. Additional measurements of individual ferromagnetic objects commonly found in association with shipwreck archaeological sites were taken and analyzed using predictive modeling based on magnetic detectability algorithms created from prior remote sensing surveys to determine what material can be detected using the magnetometer and UAV platform. The results of this thesis confirm the predicted capabilities of the equipment used and provides detection ranges to establish a framework to future research, including a determination on the minimum amount of wooden hull material with iron fasteners required to exist in an archaeological context to be detectable.
- ItemDO CULTURAL RESOURCE LAWS & FEDERAL REGULATIONS ADD CONSTRAINTS TO NATIVE AMERICAN TRUST LAND MANAGEMENT AND TRUST LAND DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES?(2022) Ferris-George, Wendy; Palus, Matthew M; Anthropology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This research was conducted to evaluate the way cultural resource management laws and federal regulations impact Native American trust land management. Tribal trust land is land that has been set aside for the exclusive use and benefit of a tribe but is owned by the United States. Trust lands were once the aboriginal lands, exclusively controlled and managed by individual tribes through traditional land management practices. Traditional land management is a part of cultural and heritage resource management because the resources promoted by these practices are integral to traditional cultural practices that are repetitious. Current regulatory laws have a negative impact on Native American people by restricting their ability to manage tribal trust land with traditional land management tools, like fire. In addition, these laws cause time delays and economic losses to tribes who are in the process of development for economic purposes. Federal administrative agencies, such as the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), were established to administer Native American programs as part of the executive branch of government. The BIA is responsible for regulating compliance with federal laws on trust lands. Native American Tribes and their traditional practitioners are challenged by overlapping cultural resource compliance laws and federal regulations. Tribes express that there are social and economic impacts to the people who rely on the land for purposes of religious and economic well-being
- ItemLOST LABOR: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE INTERPRETATION OF IRISH CANAL WORKER HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE CHESAPEAKE AND OHIO CANAL(2022) Hauber, Samuel; Palus, Matthew M; Anthropology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal would not exist without the labor of thousands of Irish immigrants in the 19th century. Through a framework of labor history, critical archaeology, and public history this study sought to improve interpretation of these canal workers. Archaeological and visitation data were analyzed to form recommendations for improvements to the parks interpretive materials on this subject. Labor history may have begun with the intent to balance historical narratives which had previously focused on powerful individuals. But continuing the trend of narrating specific groups experiences within history limits the perspective on these groups and perpetuates the issue of narrow, marginalizing, perspectives on complex history. The archaeological record from the C&O Canal construction can fulfill the parks interpretive mission through critical archaeology and labor theory. The interpretive potential of the archaeological findings, combined with the knowledge of visitation trends, form an exciting opportunity to build upon an evolving interpretive art which began with Freeman Tilden.
- ItemIntroducing Respect in NAGPRA Repatriation Efforts(2022) Ulmer, Jessica Alayne; Lafrenz Samuels, Kathryn; Palus, Matthew; Anthropology; Digital Repository at the University of Maryland; University of Maryland (College Park, Md.)This thesis addresses the repatriation efforts of the Texas Historical Commission (THC) over the legacy collections subject to the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) housed at THC’s Curatorial Facility for Artifact Research. The passage of NAGPRA provided a formal process for tribes to reclaim their ancestors. This led to the question addressed in this thesis: how is this change in perspective reflected in the best practice methodology developed by the Texas Historical Commission (THC) in preparing a collection for repatriation prior to the notice of inventory? The THC is dedicated to following the spirit of NAGPRA as well as the letter of the law to make a new model on records compilation, rehousing efforts and consultation with the tribes during the repatriation process. The methods in the model were compiled while acknowledging that the human remains were once ancestors with living descendants that have burial customs different from Anglo-American burials. Best practices are a process and can be altered with new information. Through these repatriation efforts, the THC has provided a model for best practices and methodology to follow which can be applied throughout the United States.