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Over the last decade, we have witnessed an increasing interest in temporal analysis of information networks such as social networks or citation networks. Finding temporal interaction patterns, visualizing the evolution of graph properties, or even simply comparing them across time, has proven to add significant value in reasoning over networks. However, because of the lack of underlying data management support, much of the work on large-scale graph analytics to date has largely focused on the study of static properties of graph snapshots. Unfortunately, a static view of interactions between entities is often an oversimplification of several complex phenomena like the spread of epidemics, information diffusion, formation of online communities, and so on. In the absence of appropriate support, an analyst today has to manually navigate the added temporal complexity of large evolving graphs, making the process cumbersome and ineffective.

In this dissertation, I address the key challenges in storing, retrieving, and analyzing large historical graphs. In the first part, I present DeltaGraph, a novel, extensible, highly tunable, and distributed hierarchical index structure that enables compact recording of the historical information, and that supports efficient retrieval of historical graph snapshots. I present analytical models for estimating required storage space and snapshot retrieval times which aid in choosing the right parameters for a specific scenario. I also present optimizations such as partial materialization and columnar storage to speed up snapshot retrieval. In the second part, I present Temporal Graph Index that builds upon DeltaGraph to support version-centric retrieval such as a node’s 1-hop neighborhood history, along with snapshot reconstruction. It provides high scalability, employing careful partitioning, distribution, and replication strategies that effectively deal with temporal and topological skew, typical of temporal graph datasets. In the last part of the dissertation, I present Temporal Graph Analysis Framework that enables analysts to effectively express a variety of complex historical graph analysis tasks using a set of novel temporal graph operators and to execute them in an efficient and scalable manner on a cloud. My proposed solutions are engineered in the form of a framework called the Historical Graph Store, designed to facilitate a wide variety of large-scale historical graph analysis.