Determinants of urinary bisphenol A concentrations in Mexican/Mexican-American pregnant women.

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Quiros-Alcala L, Eskenazi B, Bradman A, Ye X, Calafat AM, Harley K. Determinants of urinary bisphenol A concentrations in Mexican/Mexican-American pregnant women. Environment International. 2013;59:152-60.


Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may be associated with adverse health effects in the developing fetus; however, little is known about predictors of BPA exposure during pregnancy. We examined BPA exposure in 491 pregnant women from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) cohort and explored the role of living in the United States on significant dietary predictors of BPA exposure. Women provided urine samples up to two times during pregnancy (n = 866 total samples). We computed the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to evaluate variability in concentrations between collections and used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to assess predictors of exposure. Geometric mean (GSD) BPA concentrations were 0.9 (2.8) μg/L and 1.0 (2.6) μg/L at the first and second prenatal visits, respectively. We observed greater within- than between-woman variability in urinary BPA concentrations (ICC = 0.22). GEE models suggest that women who lived in the United States their entire life had 38% (CI: − 0.1, 89.3) higher urinary BPA concentrations compared with other immigrant women. Additionally, women who consumed ≥ 3 sodas per day or hamburgers three times a week or more had 58% (CI: 18.0, 112.1) and 20% (CI: − 0.2, 45.2) higher urinary BPA concentrations, respectively, compared with women who consumed no sodas or hamburgers. A higher percentage of women who lived their entire life in the United States reported increased consumption of sodas and hamburgers compared with other immigrant women. Independent of other factors, BPA urinary concentrations were slightly higher when the sample was collected later in the day. As in previous studies, high within-woman variability in urinary BPA concentrations confirms that several samples are needed to properly characterize exposure during pregnancy. Results also suggest that some factors could be modified to minimize exposures during pregnancy in our study participants (e.g., reducing soda and hamburger intake) and that factors associated with acculturation might increase BPA concentrations.