Complete Columbian mammoth mitogenome suggests interbreeding with woolly mammoths

dc.contributor.authorEnk, Jacob
dc.contributor.authorDevault, Alison
dc.contributor.authorDebruyne, Regis
dc.contributor.authorKing, Christine E
dc.contributor.authorTreangen, Todd
dc.contributor.authorO'Rourke, Dennis
dc.contributor.authorSalzberg, Steven L
dc.contributor.authorFisher, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorMacPhee, Ross
dc.contributor.authorPoinar, Hendrik
dc.description.abstractLate Pleistocene North America hosted at least two divergent and ecologically distinct species of mammoth: the periglacial woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and the subglacial Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi). To date, mammoth genetic research has been entirely restricted to woolly mammoths, rendering their genetic evolution difficult to contextualize within broader Pleistocene paleoecology and biogeography. Here, we take an interspecific approach to clarifying mammoth phylogeny by targeting Columbian mammoth remains for mitogenomic sequencing. We sequenced the first complete mitochondrial genome of a classic Columbian mammoth, as well as the first complete mitochondrial genome of a North American woolly mammoth. Somewhat contrary to conventional paleontological models, which posit that the two species were highly divergent, the M. columbi mitogenome we obtained falls securely within a subclade of endemic North American M. primigenius. Though limited, our data suggest that the two species interbred at some point in their evolutionary histories. One potential explanation is that woolly mammoth haplotypes entered Columbian mammoth populations via introgression at subglacial ecotones, a scenario with compelling parallels in extant elephants and consistent with certain regional paleontological observations. This highlights the need for multi-genomic data to sufficiently characterize mammoth evolutionary history. Our results demonstrate that the use of next-generation sequencing technologies holds promise in obtaining such data, even from non-cave, non-permafrost Pleistocene depositional contexts.en_US
dc.identifier.citationEnk, J., Devault, A., Debruyne, R. et al. Complete Columbian mammoth mitogenome suggests interbreeding with woolly mammoths. Genome Biol 12, R51 (2011).en_US
dc.publisherSpringer Natureen_US
dc.relation.isAvailableAtCollege of Computer, Mathematical & Physical Sciencesen_us
dc.relation.isAvailableAtDigital Repository at the University of Marylanden_us
dc.relation.isAvailableAtUniversity of Maryland (College Park, MD)en_us
dc.subjectCoverage Depthen_US
dc.subjectComplete Mitochondrial Genomeen_US
dc.subjectIncomplete Lineage Sortingen_US
dc.subjectMuch Recent Common Ancestoren_US
dc.subjectAsiatic Elephanten_US
dc.titleComplete Columbian mammoth mitogenome suggests interbreeding with woolly mammothsen_US


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