Learning-based Motion Planning for High-DoF Robot Systems

dc.contributor.advisorManocha, Dineshen_US
dc.contributor.authorJia, Biaoen_US
dc.contributor.departmentComputer Scienceen_US
dc.contributor.publisherDigital Repository at the University of Marylanden_US
dc.contributor.publisherUniversity of Maryland (College Park, Md.)en_US
dc.description.abstractA high-degree-of-freedom (DoF) robot system refers to a type of robotic system that possesses many independently controllable mechanical degrees of freedom. This includes high-DoF robots or objects being manipulated, such as flexible robotic arms and flexible objects. Degrees of freedom in robotics represent the different ways a robot can move or manipulate its parts. High-DoF robot systems have a significant number of these independent motions, allowing them to exhibit complex and versatile movements and behaviors. These systems are employed in various applications, including manufacturing and healthcare, where precise and flexible control is essential. The main difficulty associated with high-DoF robot systems is the complexity arising from their numerous degrees of freedom. Calculating the optimal trajectories or control inputs for high-DoF systems can be computationally intensive. The sheer number of variables and the need for real-time responsiveness pose significant challenges in terms of computation and control. In some cases, high-DoF robot systems interact with deformable objects such as fabrics and foam. Modeling and controlling these objects add additional layers of complexity due to their dynamic and unpredictable behavior. To address these challenges, we delve into several key areas: Object Deformation Modeling, Controller Parameterization, System Identification, Control Policy Learning, and Sim-to- Real Transfer. We begin by using cloth manipulation as an example to illustrate how to model high-DoF objects and design mapping relationships. By leveraging computer vision and visual feedback-based controllers, we enhance the ability to model and control objects with substantial shape variations, which is particularly valuable in applications involving deformable materials. Next, we shift our focus to Controller Parameterization, aiming to define control parameters for high-DoF objects. We employ a random forest-based controller along with imitation learning, resulting in more robust and efficient controllers, which are essential for high-DoF robot systems. This method can be used for human-robot collaboration involving flexible objects and enables imitation learning to converge in as few as 4-5 iterations. Furthermore, we explore how to reduce the dimensionality of both high-degree-of-freedom (high-DoF) robot systems and objects simultaneously. Our system allows for the more effective use of computationally intensive methods like reinforcement learning (RL) or trajectory optimization. Therefore, we design a system identification method to reduce the need for repeated rendering or experiments, significantly improving the efficiency of RL. This enables some algorithms with exponential computational complexity to be solved in linear time. In this part of the work, we adopt a real setup where humans and robots collaborate in real-time to manipulate flexible objects. In the second part of our research, we focus on the task of natural media painting. We utilize reinforcement learning techniques. Painting itself can be considered a high-DoF robot system, as it entails a multitude of context-dependent actions to complete the task. Our objective is to replicate a reference image using brush strokes, with the goal encoded through observations. We will focus on how to address the sparse reward distribution with a large continuous action space. Additionally, we investigate the practicality of transferring learned policies from simulated environments to real-world scenarios, with a specific focus on tasks like painting. This research bridges the gap between simulation and practical application, ensuring that the knowledge gained from our work can be effectively utilized in real-world settings. Ultimately, we will demonstrate the use of RL-learned painting strategies in both virtual and real robot environments.en_US
dc.subject.pqcontrolledComputer scienceen_US
dc.subject.pquncontrolledMachine Learningen_US
dc.subject.pquncontrolledReinforcement Learningen_US
dc.subject.pquncontrolledRobotic Manipulationen_US
dc.subject.pquncontrolledSim-to-Real Transferen_US
dc.titleLearning-based Motion Planning for High-DoF Robot Systemsen_US


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