Modeling and Optimization for Epitaxial Growth: Transport and Growth Studies

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This report details the objectives, methodologies, and results for Phase II ofthe project, "Modeling and Optimization for Epitaxial Growth"(see~cite{NKPB98} for Phase I report). This project is a joint effort betweenthe Institute for Systems Research (ISR) and Northrop Grumman'sElectronic Sensors and Systems Sector (ESSS), Baltimore, MD.

The overallobjective is to improve manufacturing effectiveness for epitaxial growth ofsilicon and silicon-germanium (Si-Ge) thin films on a silicon wafer. Growthtakes place in the ASM Epsilon-1 chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor, aproduction tool currently in use at ESSS. Phase II project results includedevelopment of a new comprehensive process-equipment model capable ofpredicting gas flow, heat transfer, species transport, and chemical mechanismsin the reactor under a variety of process conditions and equipment settings.

Applications of the model include prediction and control of deposition rate andthickness uniformity; studying sensitivity of deposition rate to processsettings such as temperature, pressure, and flow rates; and reducing the use ofconsumables via purge flow optimization. The implications of varioussimulation results are discussed in terms of how they can be used to reducecosts and improve product quality, e.g., thickness uniformity of thin films. We demonstrate that achieving deposition uniformity requires some degree oftemperature non-uniformity to compensate for the effects of other phenomenasuch as reactant depletion, gas heating and gas phase reactions, thermaldiffusion of species, and flow patterns.