Noble Metal Ion-Directed Assembly of 2D Materials for Heterostructured Catalysts and Metallic Micro-Texturing
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Assembling 2D-material (2DM) nanosheets into micro- and macro-architectures with augmented functionalities requires effective strategies to overcome nanosheet restacking. Conventional assembly approaches involve external binders and/or functionalization, which inevitably sacrifice 2DM's nanoscale properties. Noble metal ions (NMI) are promising ionic crosslinkers, which can simultaneously assemble 2DM nanosheets and induce synergistic properties. Herein, a collection of NMI–2DM complexes are screened and categorized into two sub-groups. Based on the zeta potentials, two assembly approaches are developed to obtain 1) NMI-crosslinked 2DM hydrogels/aerogels for heterostructured catalysts and 2) NMI–2DM inks for templated synthesis. First, tetraammineplatinum(II) nitrate (TPtN) serves as an efficient ionic crosslinker to agglomerate various 2DM dispersions. By utilizing micro-textured assembly platforms, various TPtN–2DM hydrogels are fabricated in a scalable fashion. Afterward, these hydrogels are lyophilized and thermally reduced to synthesize Pt-decorated 2DM aerogels (Pt@2DM). The Pt@2DM heterostructures demonstrate high, substrate-dependent catalytic activities and promote different reaction pathways in the hydrogenation of 3-nitrostyrene. Second, PtCl4 can be incorporated into 2DM dispersions at high NMI molarities to prepare a series of PtCl4–2DM inks with high colloidal stability. By adopting the PtCl4–graphene oxide ink, various Pt micro-structures with replicated topographies are synthesized with accurate control of grain sizes and porosities.