Parallel and Distributed Simulation of Discrete Event Systems
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The achievements attained in accelerating the simulation of the dynamics of complex discrete event systems using parallel or distributed multiprocessing environments are comprehensively presented. While parallel discrete event simulation (DES) governs the evolution of the system over simulated time in an iterative SIMD way, distributed DES tries to spatially decompose the event structure underlying the system, and executes event occurrences in spatial subregions by logical processes (LPs) usually assigned to different (physical) processing elements. Synchronization protocols are necessary in this approach to avoid timing inconsistencies and to guarantee the preservation of event causalities across LPs.
Included in the survey are discussions on the sources and levels of parallelism, synchronous vs. asynchronous simulation and principles of LP simulation. In the context of conservative LP simulation (Chandy/Misra/Bryant) deadlock avoidance and deadlock detection/recovery strategies, Conservative Time Windows and the Carrier Nullmessage protocol are presented. Related to optimistic LP simulation (Time Warp), Optimistic Time Windows, memory management, GVT computation, probabilistic optimism control and adaptive schemes are investigated. (Also cross-referenced as UMIACS-TR-94-100)