Process evaluation of a multi-institutional community-based program for diabetes prevention among First Nations
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Epidemic rates of diabetes among Native North Americans demand novel solutions. Zhiiwaapenewin Akino'maagewin: Teaching to Prevent Diabetes was a community-based diabetes prevention program based in schools, food stores and health offices in seven First Nations in northwestern Ontario, Canada. Program interventions in these three institutions included implementation of Grades 3 and 4 healthy lifestyles curricula; stocking and labeling of healthier foods and healthy recipes cooking demonstrations and taste tests; and mass media efforts and community events held by health agencies. Qualitative and quantitative process data collected through surveys, logs and interviews assessed fidelity, dose, reach and context of the intervention to evaluate implementation and explain impact findings. School curricula implementation had moderate fidelity with 63% delivered as planned. Store activities had moderate fidelity: availability of all promoted foods was 70%, and appropriate shelf labels were posted 60% of the time. Cooking demonstrations were performed with 71% fidelity and high dose. A total of 156 posters were placed in community locations; radio, cable TV and newsletters were utilized. Interviews revealed that the program was culturally acceptable and relevant, and suggestions for improvement were made. These findings will be used to plan an expanded trial in several Native North American communities.