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Organic Matter (OM) amendments are often used in wetland restoration – a practice required in Maryland and other states. This work summarizes a literature review and lab and field experiments to evaluate the consequences of OM amendment use. The literature review showed that although OM use is widely accepted, the evidence that they are effective is weak, and there can be negative effects. Transplanted topsoil is much more effective than allochthonous OM (e.g., manure). OM amendments were largely ineffective in a field study conducted on a mitigation wetland in Caroline County, MD, and negative consequences were possible, although composting the OM relieved negative effects. One example of ineffectiveness: OM is not needed to develop anaerobic conditions in saturated soil. While in some cases OM seems to be a benefit, as in aboveground biomass production, this is usually accompanied by a loss of diversity and it selects for undesired and invasive species. One of the negative consequences OM is the increased production of methane, a greenhouse gas, which became the focus of this work. Two lab microcosm studies and a field study revealed that rewetting dried soils (as in after mitigation wetland construction) immediately releases small amounts of methane, and methane sharply increases after about 7 weeks. Using OM affects methane production in two ways. First, overall methane production usually increases. Second, the time frame before there is a sharp increase in methane production is shorter, from ~7 weeks to as little as 1 or 2 weeks. These effects are somewhat reduced with composted OM. Using a Stable Isotope Probing microcosm study, the work also helped to identify the archaeal and bacterial taxa that are responsible for the sudden increase in methane. Methanosarcina is likely the primary taxa responsible for methane generation. Understanding the conditions that result in methane emanating from wetlands could lead to practices that reduce its release into the atmosphere, where it contributes to global warming. Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but is short lived, so controlling methane emissions can have a more immediate effect on climate change.