Remote and Local Entanglement of Ions using Photons and Phonons

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The scaling of controlled quantum systems to large numbers of degrees of freedom is one of the long term goals of experimental quantum information science. Trapped-ion systems are one of the most promising platforms for building a quantum information processor with enough complexity to enable novel computational power, but face serious challenges in scaling up to the necessary numbers of qubits. In this thesis, I present both technical and operational advancements in the control of trapped-ion systems and their juxtaposition with photonic modes used for quantum networking. After reviewing the basic physics behind ion trapping, I then describe in detail a new method of implementing Raman transitions in atomic systems using optical frequency combs. Several dierent experimental setups along with simple theoretical models are reviewed and the system is shown to be capable of full control of the qubit-oscillator system. Two-ion entangling operations using optical frequency combs are demonstrated along with an extension of the operation designed to suppress certain experimental errors. I then give an overview of how spatially separated ions can be entangled using a photonic interconnect. Experimental results show that pulsed excitation of trapped ions provide an excellent single photon source that can be used as a heralded entangling gate between macroscopically separated systems. This heralded entangling gate is used to show a violation of a Bell inequality while keeping the detection loophole closed and can be used a source private random numbers. Finally, the coherent Coulomb force-based gates are combined with the probabilistic photon-based gates in a proof of concept experiment that shows the feasibility of a distributed ion-photon network.