Evaluation of Nutrients and Suspended Solids Removal by Stormwater Control Measures Using High Flow Media

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High Flow Media (HFM) is able to treat large runoff volumes using small- footprint systems. Seven full-scale HFM Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) in a residential area were monitored over 11 months to assess the removal of Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Nitrogen, and Phosphorus in First Flush (FF) stormwater runoff. Excellent removal of TSS and particulate-bound nutrients was noted, but, in most SCMs, removal of dissolved species was limited. Sorption of dissolved P occurred, although most likely on captured and suspended sediment and not on the HFM itself. Mineralization and nitrification of dissolved N species during dry periods led to nitrate export. HFM grain size and organic content did not significantly impact TSS or P removal, but higher organic content was associated with higher N removal. FF was present in TSS (strongest), TN, and TP (weakest). Optimal HFM SCM design incorporates sedimentation before filtration.