Nonlinear Optics Quantum Computation and Quantum Simulation with Circuit-QED

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Superconducting quantum circuits are a promising approach for realizations of large scale quantum information processing and quantum simulations. The Josephson junction, which forms the basis of superconducting circuits, is the only known nonlinear non-dissipative circuit element, and its inherent nonlinearities have found many different applications. In this thesis I discuss specific implementations of these circuits. I show that strong two-photon nonlinearities can be induced by coupling photons in the microwave domain to Josephson nonlinearities. I then propose a method to simulate a parent Hamiltonian that can potentially be used to observe fractional quantum Hall states of light. I will also explore how superconducting circuits can be used to modify system-bath couplings to emulate a chemical potential for photons. Finally, I consider the limitations of devising a scheme to couple superconducting circuits to trapped ions, and consider the challenges for such hybrid approaches.