Effects of anthocyanin rich extracts on multiple biomarkers of colon cancer
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The aim of this study was to investigate the chemoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich extracts (AREs) from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), chokeberry (Aronia meloncarpa) and grape (Vitis vinifera) by assessing multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats treated with a colon carcinogen. Male F344 rats (n = 40) were fed AIN-93 diet (control) or AIN-93 diet supplemented with AREs for 14 weeks. Biomarkers included total aberrant crypt foci (ACF) that were reduced in ARE diet groups as compared to the control group. Colonic cellular proliferation were decreased in rats fed bilberry and chokeberry ARE diets. Rats fed bilberry and grape ARE diets had lower COX-2 mRNA levels expression. Increased levels of fecal anthocyanins, fecal mass and moisture occurred in ARE-fed rats. Significant reduction of fecal bile acids was observed in ARE-fed rats. The results suggest a protective role of AREs in colon carcinogenesis, and indicate multiple mechanisms of action are involved.